Respiratory Anatomy & Histology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Respiratory Anatomy & Histology Deck (82):
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What are the 3 compartments of the thorax?

right and left pleural cavities
central mediastinum

1

5 areas of pleura

cervical
mediastinal
costal
diaphragmatic
costodiaphragmatic recess

2

What level does the trachea start?

C6

3

How does R and L main bronchi differ?

Right is shorter, wider and more vertical

4

What level does trachea divide?

T4-5 in main bronchi (angle of louis)

5

Describe the trachea cross section

series of U-shaped rings attached posteriorly via trachealis muscle

6

Where do the main bronchi enter the lung?

the hlium

7

Order of bronchi entering?

Main -->lobar --> segmental

8

Each bronchopulmonary segment is supplied by? 3 things

segmental bronchus
artery
vein

9

What's so special about bronchopulmonary segment? 2 things

function

10

What's the arching vessel indent on the left lung?

aorta

11

What's the arching vessel indent on the right lung?

azygous vein

12

The parietal pleura consists of 2 things:

Diaphragmatic pleura
Costodiaphgragmatic recess

13

What's the pulmonary ligament for?

A 'dead space' for Expansion of pulmonary veins

14

How does it feel when I stick a needle into your visceral layer? Why?

"Not bad.... it's Dull doc"
"yep, cause it's your autonomic nerves I'm hitting"

15

How does it feel when I stick a needle into your parietal layer? Why?

"IT'S SHARP AND SEVERE!!!"
"yes, cause it's your somatic nerves I just irritated."

16

What do you call air between the pleura?

pneumothorax

17

What do you call blood between the pleura?

haemothorax

18

When you choke on something, where does it get stuck? and why?

Right main bronchus cause it's shorter, wider and more vertical

19

What's the FIRST branch off of the right main bronchus?

Apical segment of lower lobe, so auscultate there is there is aspiration of vomit or liquids

20

Where does the azygous vein arch?

level of 2nd costal cartilage

21

What are conducting parts of the respiratory system?

nasopharynx
trachea
bronchi
bronchioles

22

What do the sinuses do to the air on inspiration and expiration?

inspiration: humidifies and warms
expiration: cools and condenses and recycles moisture

23

What diverts food and drink away from the airways? 2 things

epiglottis

24

what's the uppermost part of the trachea?

larynx

25

whats the organ of phonation?

larynx

26

What is a non-respiratory function of the lungs?

sound production

27

What kind of epithelium lines airways?

ciliated pseudostratified epithelium

28

What do sensory cells in the respiratory epithelium do?

initiate cough

29

what produces musuc in the respiratory epithelium?

goblet cells and deeper glands

30

What percentage of Serous cells make up the respiratory epithelium?

3%

31

What percentage of Basal Stem cells make up the respiratory epithelium?

30%

32

What percentage of basal columnar cells make up the respiratory epithelium?

30%

33

What percentage of brush cells with microvilli make up the respiratory epithelium?

3%

34

vWhat percentage of goblet cells make up the respiratory epithelium?

30%

35

T/F there is slow turnover in the lungs?

false. fast turn over, why there are 30% basal stem cells

36

What does smoking do to the mucus clearing mechanism?

destroys cilia, harder to clear crap

37

dimensions of trachea?

12 cm long, 2cm diameter

38

What happens when you contract the trachealis muscle?

trachea narrows

39

what are the 3 layers of the trachea?

mucosa
submucosa
adventitia

40

Narrow tube = more or less resistance?

more resistance

41

What makes up the mucosa in the trachea? 2 things

respiratory epithelium
lamina priopria

42

Whats in the submucosa of the trachea? 2 things

glands and connective tissue

43

Where is the cartilage "c"s and outer later of CT located in the trachea?

adventitia

44

How many branches does the primary bronchi split into? how many right, how many left?

3 right
2 left

45

Do bronchi have cartilage rings?

Nope. cartilage plates

46

Where is the smooth muscle located in a bronchus?

between lamina propria and submucosa (complete ring)

47

Are there glands and lymphoid and alveoli in a bronchus?

only glands and lymphoid tissue

48

When does a bronchus become a bronchiole? what's it's diameter?

when there is no longer cartilage

49

Which dichotomous branch does the bronchi turn into the bronchiole?

around 10-15th branch

50

What do bronchiole lose and what do they gain?

lose goblet cells, ciliated cells
gains clara cells

51

How do bronchioles keep their airways open without cartilage?

radial CT

52

T/F? goblet cells extend further down than ciliated cells?

False. gravity will pull mucous down so you want ciliated cells lower to catch

53

What do Clara cells look like?

columnar/cuboidal with short microvilli

54

What do clara cells secrete?

surfactant

55

What is the final level of the conducting system?

terminal bronchioles

56

What do terminal bronchioles have and what don't they have?

have clara cells, some cilia, have smooth muscle

does not have goblet cells

57

T/F? Terminal bronchioles have gas exchange structures?

false.

58

When do terminal bronchioles become respiratory bronchioles?

as soon as a break in the wall

59

What are chains of connected alveoli called?

alveolar ducts

60

describe the epithelium of respiratory bronchiole?

cuboidal to squamous

61

how many alveoli in the lungs?

300 million

63

surface area of exchange of all the alveoli?

140m2

64

What's the diameter of a typical alveolus?

200um

65

What are individual alveoli connectred by?

pores

66

what cells are alveoli lined with?

simple squamous

67

What is the interalveolar septum made of ? how are they arranged?

radially arranged reticular and elastin fibres

68

What are the epithelial cells of the alveoli called? how many percent of the surface area do they make up?

Type 1 pneumocytes cover up 95%

69

What do type 1 pneumocytes do functionally? 2 things?

exchange surface
tight junction to limit leakage

70

are there basal lamina with type 1 pneumocytes?

yes! prominent ones

71

There are less Type II than type 1 pneumocytes? T/F?

False, more Type II pneumocytes! Though only cover 5% of surface area

72

What kind of cells are Type II pneumocytes?

cuboidal cells

73

What do the lamella bodies on Type II pneumocytes do?

secrete surfactant

74

What are the stem cells in the alveoli called?

Type II pneumocytes

75

Do Type II pneumocytes have and villi?

yes microvilli actually

76

Can Type II pneumocytes only give rise to type II?

Nope. Both type 1 and 2

77

Gas exchange must pass through two cell barriers, they are?

Type 1 pneumocyte
Endothelial cell of capillary

78

What is the blood-gas barrier made of? 7 layers

surfactant
type 1 pneumocyte
basallamina
CT
basal lamina
endothelial cell
plasma

79

What are the phagocytes in the alveoli called?

Intra-alveolar macrophages

80

2 eventual fates of a 'full' Intra-alveolar macrophages

travel up to cilia and carried away
end up in the septum and you get the darkspots

81

Why is it important to have film of serous fluid between visceral and parietal pleuras?

prevent pleural rub during respiration

82

what's a risk of lymphatics draining into pleural space?

infection
cancer