Flashcards in Respiratory Anatomy & Histology Deck (82):
What are the 3 compartments of the thorax?
right and left pleural cavities
5 areas of pleura
What level does the trachea start?
How does R and L main bronchi differ?
Right is shorter, wider and more vertical
What level does trachea divide?
T4-5 in main bronchi (angle of louis)
Describe the trachea cross section
series of U-shaped rings attached posteriorly via trachealis muscle
Where do the main bronchi enter the lung?
Order of bronchi entering?
Main -->lobar --> segmental
Each bronchopulmonary segment is supplied by? 3 things
What's so special about bronchopulmonary segment? 2 things
What's the arching vessel indent on the left lung?
What's the arching vessel indent on the right lung?
The parietal pleura consists of 2 things:
What's the pulmonary ligament for?
A 'dead space' for Expansion of pulmonary veins
How does it feel when I stick a needle into your visceral layer? Why?
"Not bad.... it's Dull doc"
"yep, cause it's your autonomic nerves I'm hitting"
How does it feel when I stick a needle into your parietal layer? Why?
"IT'S SHARP AND SEVERE!!!"
"yes, cause it's your somatic nerves I just irritated."
What do you call air between the pleura?
What do you call blood between the pleura?
When you choke on something, where does it get stuck? and why?
Right main bronchus cause it's shorter, wider and more vertical
What's the FIRST branch off of the right main bronchus?
Apical segment of lower lobe, so auscultate there is there is aspiration of vomit or liquids
Where does the azygous vein arch?
level of 2nd costal cartilage
What are conducting parts of the respiratory system?
What do the sinuses do to the air on inspiration and expiration?
inspiration: humidifies and warms
expiration: cools and condenses and recycles moisture
What diverts food and drink away from the airways? 2 things
what's the uppermost part of the trachea?
whats the organ of phonation?
What is a non-respiratory function of the lungs?
What kind of epithelium lines airways?
ciliated pseudostratified epithelium
What do sensory cells in the respiratory epithelium do?
what produces musuc in the respiratory epithelium?
goblet cells and deeper glands
What percentage of Serous cells make up the respiratory epithelium?
What percentage of Basal Stem cells make up the respiratory epithelium?
What percentage of basal columnar cells make up the respiratory epithelium?
What percentage of brush cells with microvilli make up the respiratory epithelium?
vWhat percentage of goblet cells make up the respiratory epithelium?
T/F there is slow turnover in the lungs?
false. fast turn over, why there are 30% basal stem cells
What does smoking do to the mucus clearing mechanism?
destroys cilia, harder to clear crap
dimensions of trachea?
12 cm long, 2cm diameter
What happens when you contract the trachealis muscle?
what are the 3 layers of the trachea?
Narrow tube = more or less resistance?
What makes up the mucosa in the trachea? 2 things
Whats in the submucosa of the trachea? 2 things
glands and connective tissue
Where is the cartilage "c"s and outer later of CT located in the trachea?
How many branches does the primary bronchi split into? how many right, how many left?
Do bronchi have cartilage rings?
Nope. cartilage plates
Where is the smooth muscle located in a bronchus?
between lamina propria and submucosa (complete ring)
Are there glands and lymphoid and alveoli in a bronchus?
only glands and lymphoid tissue
When does a bronchus become a bronchiole? what's it's diameter?
when there is no longer cartilage
Which dichotomous branch does the bronchi turn into the bronchiole?
around 10-15th branch
What do bronchiole lose and what do they gain?
lose goblet cells, ciliated cells
gains clara cells
How do bronchioles keep their airways open without cartilage?
T/F? goblet cells extend further down than ciliated cells?
False. gravity will pull mucous down so you want ciliated cells lower to catch
What do Clara cells look like?
columnar/cuboidal with short microvilli
What do clara cells secrete?
What is the final level of the conducting system?
What do terminal bronchioles have and what don't they have?
have clara cells, some cilia, have smooth muscle
does not have goblet cells
T/F? Terminal bronchioles have gas exchange structures?
When do terminal bronchioles become respiratory bronchioles?
as soon as a break in the wall
What are chains of connected alveoli called?
describe the epithelium of respiratory bronchiole?
cuboidal to squamous
how many alveoli in the lungs?
surface area of exchange of all the alveoli?
What's the diameter of a typical alveolus?
What are individual alveoli connectred by?
what cells are alveoli lined with?
What is the interalveolar septum made of ? how are they arranged?
radially arranged reticular and elastin fibres
What are the epithelial cells of the alveoli called? how many percent of the surface area do they make up?
Type 1 pneumocytes cover up 95%
What do type 1 pneumocytes do functionally? 2 things?
tight junction to limit leakage
are there basal lamina with type 1 pneumocytes?
yes! prominent ones
There are less Type II than type 1 pneumocytes? T/F?
False, more Type II pneumocytes! Though only cover 5% of surface area
What kind of cells are Type II pneumocytes?
What do the lamella bodies on Type II pneumocytes do?
What are the stem cells in the alveoli called?
Type II pneumocytes
Do Type II pneumocytes have and villi?
yes microvilli actually
Can Type II pneumocytes only give rise to type II?
Nope. Both type 1 and 2
Gas exchange must pass through two cell barriers, they are?
Type 1 pneumocyte
Endothelial cell of capillary
What is the blood-gas barrier made of? 7 layers
type 1 pneumocyte
What are the phagocytes in the alveoli called?
2 eventual fates of a 'full' Intra-alveolar macrophages
travel up to cilia and carried away
end up in the septum and you get the darkspots
Why is it important to have film of serous fluid between visceral and parietal pleuras?
prevent pleural rub during respiration