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Flashcards in Respiratory Control Deck (45):
1

List the four major respiratory centers in the brainstem

-Pre-Botzinger
-Pontine respiratory group
-Dorsal respiratory group
-Ventral respiratory group

2

Describe the four major respiratory centers in the brainstem, comparing and contrasting their locations and hypothesized roles in respiratory control
-Pre-Botzinger-Location?
-Role in respiratory control?

-Located in the medulla
-Generates "core" rhythm

3

Pontine respiratory group
-location?
-Role in respiratory control?

-Located in the pons
-Modifies inspiratory timing (activity-->turns off inspiration)

4

Dorsal respiratory group
-Location?
-Role in respiratory control?

-Located in the medulla
-Controls depth of breathing (tidal volume)

5

Ventral respiratory group
-Location?
-Role in respiratory control?

-Located in the medulla
-Controls inspiration, expiration, and depth

6

Compare and contrast apneusis and apnea
-Apneusis-appearance?

Maintained inspiratory discharge

7

-Apneusis-results from?

Pontine damage

8

Apneusis-Effects?

Slight delay, but then increased CO2, decreased O2, and death if not supported

9

Apnea-Appearance?

Absence of respiratory effort (no inspiration)

10

Apnea-results from?

Medullary or spinal damage

11

Apnea-Effects?

Increased CO2, decreased O2, death if not supported

12

Chemoreceptor

A neuron that is sensitive to specific chemicals (In the respiratory system-CO2, O2, and H+)
Changes in the concentrations of these chemicals will change the firing rate of a chemoreceptor

13

What happens to the firing rate of chemoreceptors when CO2 is increased?

The firing rate of chemoreceptors increases with increased CO2

14

What happens to the firing rate of chemoreceptors when O2 is decreased?

The firing rate of chemoreceptors increases with decreased O2

15

What happens to the firing rate of chemoreceptors when H+ is increased?

The firing rate of chemoreceptors increases with increased H+

16

What is the normal response of a respiratory neuron (or any neuron) to an increase in CO2 or a decrease in O2?

A decrease in activity-which would decrease ventilation, decreasing gas exchange and making the problem worse

17

Define chemosensitivity

-The ability of certain chemicals to change the firing rate of specific neurons
-In the respiratory system, there are neurons sensitive to CO2, O2, and H+

18

How do chemoreceptors respond to hypoxia or hypercapnia?

Their activity increases which activate the respiratory centers to increase respiration

19

There are two sets of chemoreceptors
-Where are they each located??

-The central chemoreceptors (in brain)
-The peripheral chemoreceptors (in carotid and aorta)
-They each have a different role in the control of ventilation

20

Central chemoreceptors
-Where are they located specifically?
-What are they sensitive to?

-They are located on the ventral surface of the medulla
-They are indirectly sensitive to CO2 in the blood
CO2 crosses the BBB and reacts with water via carbonic anhydrase to give H2O and CO2 then H2CO3 then H and HCO3

21

Central chemoreceptors
-main function??

"Drive to breathe"-Make you breathe regularly

22

Peripheral chemoreceptors
-Where are they located specifically?
-What are they sensitive to?

-They are located in the aortic arch and carotid body
-They are sensitive to O2, CO2, and H+

23

Peripheral chemoreceptors: oxygen sensitivity

-Increased firing rate of afferents from carotid body/aortic arch
-CO2 and pH also stimulate the same response but the response is quicker than with central
-Increased firing rate and tidal volume

24

Compare and contrast the central and peripheral chemoreceptors
-Central chemoreceptors-Location?

Ventral surface of brainstem

25

Central chemoreceptors-What are they sensitive (directly and indirectly) to?

Directly: pH of CSF
Indirectly: CO2 in plasma

26

Central chemoreceptors-influence?

"respiratory drive"-drive to breathe

27

Central chemoreceptors-effects?

Increased respiratory rate/depth in response to hypercapnia (slower than peripheral)

28

Peripheral chemoreceptors-Location?

Aortic arch and carotid body

29

Carotid body

Dopamine

30

Peripheral chemoreceptors-What are they directly sensitive to?

O2, CO2, and H+ (pH)

31

Peripheral chemoreceptors-Influence?

Acute changes in blood gases

32

Peripheral chemoreceptors-Effects?

Increased respiratory rate/depth in response to hypercapnia, hypoxia, or acidosis

33

Compare and contrast the mechanoreceptor inputs that influence respiration
-Slowly adapting PSR (SARs)-Location?

Airways

34

-Slowly adapting PSR (SARs)-Adequate stimulus?

Stretch of lung

35

-Slowly adapting PSR (SARs)-Effect?

Inhibit inspiration/promote expiration

36

-Slowly adapting PSR (SARs)-Role in infants and adults?

In infants-every breath

In adults-exercise or other high Vt times

37

-Rapidly adapting (RARs)-location?

airways

38

-Rapidly adapting (RARs)-adequate stimulus?

irritants

39

-Rapidly adapting (RARs)-effect?

cough to clear airway

40

-Rapidly adapting (RARs)-role?

Protective (not every breath)

41

J receptors-location?

Near capillaries in alveoli

42

J receptors-adequate stimulus?

pulmonary edema

43

J receptors-Effect?

Cough, tachypnea

44

J receptors-role?

Protective (not every breath)

45

Cortical influences on breathing

In these cases, the cortex appears to bypass the medullary centers completely and send input directly to the muscles of inspiration