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Flashcards in Respiratory - COPD Deck (47)
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1

What is COPD?

a functional category applied to respiratory disorders that obstruct the pathway of normal aveolar ventilation either by spasm of the airways, mucus secretions, or chnages in airway and/or alveoli

2

What 3 diseases make up COPD?

Chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma

3

What is the mechanisms of chronic bronchitis?

injury to the bronchial tree, which causes mucus build-up, which then causes narrowing and air can't get in

4

What is the mechanism of action for emphysema?

Difficult expiration due to decreased elastic recoil of alveolus and narrowed bronchiole

5

Blue Bloater

chronic bronchitis- problem getting air in, oxygenation compromised

6

Pink Puffer

emphysema- surface area for gas exchange is limited

7

How can you improve ventilation for your COPD patients?

bronchodilators and breathing exercises

8

Describe the type of breathing you would educate your patient on

diaphagmatic and pursed lip breathing: increases expiratory phase to get rid of trapped air

9

What are the 2 "H"s to promote secretion removal?

Hydration and humidification

10

What are possible complications that COPD can lead to if it goes untreated?

pneumonia, status asthmaticus, cor pulmonae, Right sided HF

11

3 types of PO meds for Asthma

H1 antihistamines, leukotriene antagonists, and theophuline

12

3 types of leukotriene antagonists

singulair, accolate, zyflo

13

What are 4 common types of inhalers?

selective B2 agonists, anticholinergic, corticosteroids

14

2 common selective B2 agonists

albuterol and serevent

15

Atrovent belongs to what class of drugs

antocholinergic (sympathomimetic)

16

What is cromolyn used for?

prophylatically for asthma- blocks degranulation of mast cells

17

What are mast cells' role in the body?

When stimulated, mast cells release its contents into tissue causing increased permeability of blood vessels (inflammation and swelling), contraction of smooth muscle (bronchial muscle) and increased mucus production

18

Acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory conditions can lead to :

respiratory failure, status astmaticus, and acute infections

19

More COPD patients are seen in the __ than ____ centers

ER, Outpatient

20

Which disease has a higher mortality, chronic bronchitis or emphysema

emphysema

21

True or False, more men are diagnosed with COPD and chronic bronchitis.

False, women are diagnosed more with COPD and chronic bronchitis. However, men are more diagnosed with emphysema

22

What are the typical diagnostic tests you'd expect ordered for a COPD patient?

Xray, MRI, Ultrasound, CT, and bronchoscopy, pulmonary function tests, Tb test

23

What should be included in your respiratory assessment?

auscultate lungs, look at symmetry of lung expansion and trach position, RR, use of accessory muscles, O2 Sat, patient's color, color of nailbeds, mucosa, dyspnea, cough, and sputum

24

Your patient has an O2 sat of 98-100%, what is the paO2?

90-100

25

Your patient has an o2 sat < 90, what is PaO2?

< 60, which is not compatible to life

26

What are some signs that may indicate to you as the nurse that your patient is in respiratory decompensation?

stridor, noisy respirations w/out stethoscope, retractions, flaring naares, labored RR with use of accessory muscles, minimal or absent chest wall movement, cyanosis, decreases or absent breath sounds, anxiety and confusions

27

Why might you correct a UAP that gives your COPD patient 5 L of O2 via Nasal Cannula?

the stimulus to breathe is hypoxia (hypoxic drive). Too much O2 can cause the patient to stop breathing

28

Possible nursing dx for COPD

impaired gas exchange, ineffective breathing pattern, ineefective airway, sleep deprivation, and acute confusion

29

What is the r/t portion of impaired gas exchange

alteration in supply of oxygen or the ability to transport oxygen or changes in the alveolar-capillary membranes

30

Other nursing dx for COPD patients

pain, altered comfort, fluid deficit, hyperthermia, activity intolerance, safety ( transmission of infection)