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Flashcards in Respiratory Emergencies Deck (99)
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1

When Lungs Fail to Work

-Carbon Dioxide accumulates in the blood. -Co2 combines with water to form hydrogen ions resulting in acidosis.

2

Impaired Ventilation Causes

Upper Airway Obstruction- foreign body, infection, trauma
Lower Airway Obstruction- disease, mucus, edema
Chest Wall Impairment- flail chest, pneumonia, restrictive (scoliosis)
Neuromuscular Impairment- Lou Gehrig disease, OD

3

Guillain Barre Syndrome

Progressive muscle weakness and paralysis that moves from the feet to the head

4

Pickwickian Syndrome

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome

5

Serious injury to the spinal cord above _____ may...

above C5
-may block the nerve impulses that stimulate breathing

6

Botulism

Rare.
Acquired by giving infants raw honey.
Can cause muscle paralysis and ultimately hinder breathing

7

Alcohol, Narcotics and Opiates

Reduce the respiratory drive

8

Hyperventilation

Creates alkolosis

9

Hypoventilation

Creates acidosis

10

Respiratory Alkolosis

Cause numbness and tingling in the hands, feet and mouth

11

Carpopedal Spasm

Hands and feet clinch like a claw due to hyperventilation

12

Why breathing into a bag is bad

1) rebreathing too much carbon dioxide can cause hypoxia
2) may be compensatory and does not need to be fixed

13

Causes for hyperventilation

Stressor such as a family fight, or bad news.

14

Psychological Support for hyperventilation

Breathing with the patient
Count to two between breaths
Talk to the patient
Sing a song

15

Turbinates

Network of bones, vessels, and tissue within the nasal passageways
-Highly vascular
-Mucus covered that traps particulate matter
-Large surface area allows air to be warmed and humidified

16

Angiodema

Vascular reaction characterized by swelling of eyes, lips, and mouth
-Caused by ACE-Inhibitors

17

Hypopharynx

Where Oro and nasopharynx meets
Gag reflex
Vagus nerve

18

Larynx

Voice box

19

Glottis

Vocal cords

20

Arytenoid cartilage

Two pearly white lumps at distal end of vocal cords

21

Pyriform Fossa

Pockets of tissue on sides of glottis

22

Cilia

Small hairlike structures that wave in a pattern to move particulate matter up and out of the airway

23

Block Spots in lungs

Food or objects that were inhaled and become permanently lodged within lung

24

Goblet cells

Line the airways
Produce mucus that blankets lining of airway

25

Gas Exchange

Process by which deoxygenated blood from the pulmonary circulation releases carbon dioxide and is resupplied with oxygen before entering peripheral and systemic circulation

26

Alveolar Cell Types I and II

Type 1- (pneumocystis) are empty and allow for better gas exchange
Type 2-make new type 1 cells and produce surfactant

27

Surfactant

Reduces surface tension and helps keep alveoli expanded

28

Shunt

Collapsed alveoli do not participate in gas exchange. Blood from right side of heart bypasses alveoli and returns to left side unoxygenated resulting in hypoxemia.

29

Polycythemia

Thick blood
COPD patients generate a surplus of RBC's that cause strain on right side of heart due to the blood trying to push through tiny capillaries

30

Cor Pulmonale

Right sided heart failure because of chronic lung disease