Flashcards in Respiratory - Immune Deficiencies 2 - Week Deck (21):
CD8+ T cells differentiate into...
Cytotoxic T cells
CD4+ T cells differentiate into...
T Helper cells
How are antigens presented on CD8+ T cells?
Class I MHC
How are antigens presented on CD4+ T cells?
Class II MHC
Which cytokine is secreted by Th1 cells?
State a function of CD4+ T cells.
Provide costimulatory signals - necessary for activation of CD8+ T lymphocytes and naïve B cells
B cells mature from...
Hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow
What is the role of T follicular helper cells?
Prompt B cells to differentiate from IgM B cells into plasma B cells and other classes of immunoglobulin B cell
What is the role of Th2 in relation to B cells?
Involved in immunoglobulin class switching
State 6 functions of immunoglobulins
BCR receptor, Neutralisation - IgA, Opsonisation – IgG
Secretions in epithelium - IgA, Complement activation – IgG, Mast cell activation - IgE
Which immunoglobulins are usually found in the BCR?
IgM or IgD
Reticular dysgenesis involves failure to produce...
Macrophages, Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, platelets
SCID involves failure to produce...
What is the window in which maternal immunoglobins are falling but neonate immunoglobulin production is yet to increase called?
Transient hypogammaglobulinaemia of infancy
Which mutation is involved in SCID?
Mutation in IL-2 receptor - acts as autocrine & paracrine T cell growth factor, resulting in failure to produce T & NK Cells & production of naive B cells
What is DiGeorge Syndrome?
Developmental defect of 3rd/4th pharyngeal pouch - resulting in failure to produce T lymphocytes as there is nowhere for them to develop (Thymus)
What would a laboratory test for DiGeorge Syndrome show?
Little/absent T cells, normal or elevated B cells but low IgG, IgA and IgE, normal NK numbers
State 3 problems which can affect T cell effector function.
Cytokine production, Cytokine receptors, B-T cell communication
Which deficiencies cause failures of T cell signalling?
Interferon gamma and Il-12
What is the mechanism of Bruton’s X-linked hypogammaglobulinaemia?
Pre-cursor B cells cannot mature