Respiratory: Obstructive Airway disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Respiratory: Obstructive Airway disease Deck (19):
1

What are key histological markers of airway remodelling in asthma?

Thickened basement membrane
Collagen deposition in the submucosa
Smooth muscle hypertrophy

2

Which drugs in asthma act to reduce the eosonophillic inflammation?

Corticosteroids
Cromones
Theophylline

3

Which drugs in asthma target the hyperactivity of the airways?

Bronchodilators (Beta agonist and muscarinin antagonist)

4

Which drugs in asthma target inflammatory mediators and Th2 cytokines?

Antileukotrienes
Monoclonal antibodies
Anti IgE
Anti interleukin5

5

What antibody is raised with atopic disease?

IgE

6

What are the two components of COPD?

Chronic bronchitis and emphysema

7

What is chronic bronchitis?

Inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium sized airways)
- Chronic neutrophil inflammation
- Mucus hypersectretion
- Mucociliary dysfunction
- Smooth muscle spasm and hypertrophy

8

What is emphysema?

Alveolar destruction resulting in impaired gas exchange and loss of bronchial support.

9

What vaccinations are people with COPD given?

Influenza yearly
Pneumococcal

10

What are the treatment stages in asthma?

SABA
SABA + ICS
SABA + ICS + LABA
SABA + ICS + LABA + Montelukast

11

Why might inhaled steroids (esp fluticasone) cause pnemonia in COPD?

Local immune supression and impared mucociliary clearance. Fluticasone has a prolonged period of lunge retention

12

When are inhlaed corticosteroids used in obstructive lung disease?

As monotherapy in asthma
With a LABA in COPD.

13

How is montelukast given?

Oral tablet, once daily

14

What is omalizumab and when is it used in obstructive lung disease?

Anti IgE monoclonal antibody.
Inhibits the binding to the high affinity IgE receptors. This inhibits the TH2 response and associated mediator release from basophils and mast cells. It is given as an injection eveery 2 - 4 weeks for patients with severe persistent allergic asthma

15

What is aminophylline?

IV methylxanthine used in acute attacks. Acts as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor

16

What is theophylline?

Oral methylxanthine used for maintainence therapy in COPD and asthma.

17

What is roflumilast?

A PDE4 inhibitor used in OPD where there are frequent exacarbations. It is rarely used due to severe GI side effects.

18

What is carbocisteine?

A mucolytic used in COPD to reduce sputum viscosity.

19

What is the treatment for acute COPD?

Nebulised salbutamol + Ipratropium
Oral prednisolone
24 - 28 % Oxygen (titrated with SATs)
Antibiotics (amoxicillin/doxycyline)