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Flashcards in Respiratory System Facts Deck (24)
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1

What proportion of deaths does respiratory disease account for?

1 in 5

2

What are the main categories of respiratory diseases?

- Airway obstruction (localised and generalised)
- Restrictive disorders (within lungs and outside)
- Infection
- Pulmonary vascular disorders

3

What are the remnants of the ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale?

ligamentum arteriosum and fossa ovale.

4

What are the three lung pressure comparisons?

Ptt (trans-thoracic) = Ppl - Patm
Ptp (trans-plueral) = Palv - Ppl
Prs (respiratory system) = Palv - Patm

5

What is the size of the anatomical dead space?

150ml

6

What are the partial pressures of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water in air?

Oxygen: 21.3 kPa
Carbon Dioxide: 0kPa
Water: 0kPa

7

What are the partial pressures of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water in the conductive airways?

Oxygen: 20kPa
Carbon Dioxide: 0kPa
Water: 6.3 kPa

8

What are the partial pressures of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water in the respiratory airways?

Oxygen: 13.5 kPa
Carbon Dioxide: 5.3 kPa
Water: 6.3 kPa

9

What is the concentration of oxygen in the air?

20.9%

10

What is PaO2 in post-bronchole drainage?

13.3 kPa (97% sat)

11

What is the PvO2?

5.3 kPa

12

What is PaCO2?

5.3 kPa

13

What is PvCO2?

6.1 kPa

14

Define hypoxaemia

PaO2

15

What is normal ventilation rate?

15 br/min

16

What are the types of respiratory failures?

Type 1: Hypoxic - PaO2 6.7
Mixed: both true

17

What are the normal values for Minute Ventilation and Vt?

Vt = 0.4l
VE = 5.9l/min

18

What are the two control centers for breathing?

- bulbopontine controller in medulla (metabolic)
- suprapontine controller in the cerebral cortex (behavioural)

19

What is the survival statistic for lung cancer?

- 80% die within a year of diagnosis

20

What percentage of lung cancer is non-small cell?

75%

21

What is the most common type of lung cancer is non-smokers?

Adenocarcinoma

22

What are the different pressures maintaining pulmonary capillary fluid balance?

- Capillary hydrostatic pressure (9mmHg)
- Plasma oncotic pressure (25mmHg)
- Interstitial protein oncotic pressure (17mmHg)

23

What are the four causes of pulmonary oedema?

1) Increased hydrostatic pressure
2) Decreased plasma oncotic pressure
3) Increased interstitial oncotic pressure
4) Blocked lymphatic drainage

24

How does transmural pressure change during inspiration?

From -5cmH20 to -8cmH20