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Flashcards in Retroviruses Deck (34):
1

retrovirus general facts

lipid bilayer envelope, ss + sense RNA, reverse transcriptase included, 10kb, (gag, pol, and env)

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gag

processed to matrix and other core proteins that determine retroviral core

3

pol

reverse transcriptase, RNase H and integrase

4

Env

envelop protein, resides in bilayer, determines viral tropism

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HTLV

deltaretrovirus/oncovirus, infect CD4+ lymphocytes

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HIV

lentivirus

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pink blocks (DNA segments) near env

represent specific factors allowing for a more complex virus (not strictly necessary for survival, however)

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HERV

human endogenous retroviruses, inactive, 8% of human genome

9

HTLV-1

adult T cell leukemia, tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy

10

HTLV-2

maybe hairy cell leukemia

11

HTLV-3

something, something, maybe in Cameroon

12

HTLV-1 transmission

sexually, blood, peripartum (utero/breast milk), 30 YEAR incubation time,

13

HTLV assocaited HAM/TSP

tropical spastic paraparesis, weakness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, mediated by virally infected lymphocytes and/or the immune response

14

HTLV-1 MO

stimulates Th1 proliferation (cellular immunity and cytokines) and downregulates Th2 cells (humoral immunity)

15

treatments for HTLV-1

chemo, anti-cancer drugs, IFN-alpha, symptom based

16

lentivirus groups

5: BIV, CAEV (sheep/goat), FIV, EIAV, HIV/SIV

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major type of HIV found in the USA

HIV-1, group M, clade B

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transmission of HIV

heterosexual sex, mother to child transmission under control (can plan for a family)

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inside HIV

integrase, nucleocapsid, RNA, reverse transcriptase, A LOT of actin

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hypothetical targets for drug therapy

host proteins required for the virus but not the cell

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attachment

first gp120 to CD4, then gp41 to CXCR4 or CCR5

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gp120

made as gp160 and then cleaved

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CD4 receptor

found on T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and macrophages

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CCR5

M tropic, macrophages (most viruses use this, at least initially)

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CXCR4

T tropic, t cells

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AZT

NRTI

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tenofovir

NRTI

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NNRTI

non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor ---> blocks the reverse transcriptase ENZYME

29

HIV can enter

in the resting phase of the cell (no need for active replication)

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purpose of over expressing tether proteins

gets the virus stuck to the cell of origin

31

sites of antiretroviral drug action

fusion, reverse transcription, integration, protease inhibitors

32

try VERY HARD

to catch HIV in its very early stages

33

HIV is manifested

not through direct effects of the virus but through the proliferation of opportunistic infections -- loss of "pathogen-specific immunity" (clinical, not virological latency)

34

level of viremia in HIV

predicts CD4+ T cell loss