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Flashcards in Review Deck (61):
1

5 clues a chemical reaction occurred

Gas or odour released
Colour change
Precipitate
Temperature change
Light released

2

Law of conservation of mass

The mass of the reactants is the same as the mass of the products

3

First ionization energy

The energy required to remove an electron from an atom at its ground state

4

Trends ionization energy and electro negativity

Decreases as we go down a group
Increase from left to right

5

Trends atomic radius

Increases going down a group
Decreases going across a period

6

Proton symbol charge and mass

P+ +1 charge 1.674 x 10^-24

7

Neutron symbol charge and mass

n neutral 1.67 x 10 ^-24

8

Electron symbol charge and mass

e- -1 9.1094 x 10^-28

9

Stages of development of atomic theory

Dalton billiard ball model
Thompson plum pudding
Rutherford beehive
Bohr-quantum

10

Dalton Model

Billiard ball
All atoms of the same element are the same size. Each element has a different size.

11

Thompson

Plum pudding
Aaron's are solid positive balls with negative electrons embedded throughout it. It's still neutral

12

Rutherford

Beehive
Atom is mostly empty space. Most of the mass is in the nucleus. Electrons move around nucleus like planets around the sun

13

Bohr

Quantum
Electrons travel around nucleus in specific energy levels. Atoms get excited and absorb energy and boost to a higher level. Then they drop to the ground state and release light

14

Isotope

When an atom has the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons

15

Average atomic mass

The sum of the masses of isotopes each multiplied by its natural abundance on earth. Basically the average mass of the element on earth

16

What is Bohrs theory based on?

He directed light through a prism with a screen behind it. Then lines of certain colour shot through. Hydrogen is unique and doesn't have all the colours as everyone else.

17

Ground state

All the electrons are in the lowest possible energy levels

18

Excited state

The energy in an atom is higher than that in the ground state.

19

Pauli exclusion principle

Only 2 electrons of opposite spin can occupy one orbital

20

Aufbau principle

Building up. Each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available

21

Hunds rule

All electrons in single occupied orbitals spin the same way.

22

Covalent bonds

Bond that results from sharing of a pair of electrons by 2 atoms.

23

Polar covalent bonds

A covalent bond formed between atoms with significantly different electronegativities resulting in a molecule with localized charges.

24

Ionic bond

The electrostatic force of attraction between a positive ion and a negative ion bond them together

25

Three types of intermolecular forces

Dipole dipole forces
London dispersion forces
Hydrogen bonds

26

Dipole dipole forces

Van see Waals force. And attractive force between polar molecules. The positive end of one molecule is attracted to the negative end of one molecule

27

London dispersion forces

Van get Waals force
Weak attractive force acting between all atoms

28

Hydrogen bonds

Strongest attraction.

29

Polar molecules

A molecule that is slightly positively charged and slightly negatively charged at the other end due to electronegativity differences

30

Non polar molecules

The electrons are equally distributed among the atoms resulting in no localized charging

31

Products of combustion of a hydrocarbon

Co2 and h2o

32

Properties of metals

Shiny solid good conductors high melting points low electronegativity a lot of lister

33

Properties of non metals

Dull. Solids liquids and gases. Low density brittle. Poor conductors. No lister

34

Atomic number

The unique number of protons in one atom of an element.

35

Mass number

The weighted average of all the naturally occur in isotopes of an element

36

How do you find the number of neutrons

Mass#-atomic#

37

How do you know the protons

It's the atomic number. As well as the number of electrons

38

Group

A column of elements in the periodic table. Up and down

39

Family

Same as group

40

Period

A row on the periodic table of the elements. Left to right

41

Alkali metals

1st column on periodic table most reactive metal

42

Alkali earth metals

2nd column. Pretty reactive metals

43

Mettaloids

Have properties of metals and non metals

44

Transition metals

From row 3 to 13. The d orbital

45

Rare earth metals

Lanthanides and actinides. Below the periodic table

46

Noble gases

Column 18 full valence electrons

47

Halogens

Most reactive gas column 17

48

Where is the s block located

Group 1 and 2 and helium

49

Where is the p block located

Group 13-18

50

Where is the d block located?

Transition metals. Group 3-12

51

Where is the f block located?

Lanthanides and actinades below the table

52

Isoelectronic

When it has the same number of electrons as a noble gas

53

Reactivity of metals

The tendency metals have of losing electrons.
Increases going down. Decreases from left to right.
More energy levels so electrons can be pulled away easier

54

Reactivity of non metals

The tendency of a non metal to gain electrons.
Decreases going down. Increases left to right.
Because less energy levels means more attraction

55

Electronegativity

The tendency for an atom to attract electrons to itself when it's chemically combined with another element

56

Which elements form ionic compounds?

Metal cations and nonmetal anions

57

Which elements form covalent bonds?

Non metals sharing electrons

58

Characteristics of ionic compounds

High melting and boiling points. Solids at room temperature. Conductive of electricity in aqueous solution. Crystalline structures

59

Characteristics of covalent bonds

Low melting and boiling points. Solid liquid or gas at room temperature. Non conductive of heat or electricity. Non crystalline

60

What does the period number refer to?

The number of energy levels

61

What does the group number refer to!

# of valence electrons