Flashcards in Review Deck (61):
5 clues a chemical reaction occurred
Gas or odour released
Law of conservation of mass
The mass of the reactants is the same as the mass of the products
First ionization energy
The energy required to remove an electron from an atom at its ground state
Trends ionization energy and electro negativity
Decreases as we go down a group
Increase from left to right
Trends atomic radius
Increases going down a group
Decreases going across a period
Proton symbol charge and mass
P+ +1 charge 1.674 x 10^-24
Neutron symbol charge and mass
n neutral 1.67 x 10 ^-24
Electron symbol charge and mass
e- -1 9.1094 x 10^-28
Stages of development of atomic theory
Dalton billiard ball model
Thompson plum pudding
All atoms of the same element are the same size. Each element has a different size.
Aaron's are solid positive balls with negative electrons embedded throughout it. It's still neutral
Atom is mostly empty space. Most of the mass is in the nucleus. Electrons move around nucleus like planets around the sun
Electrons travel around nucleus in specific energy levels. Atoms get excited and absorb energy and boost to a higher level. Then they drop to the ground state and release light
When an atom has the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
Average atomic mass
The sum of the masses of isotopes each multiplied by its natural abundance on earth. Basically the average mass of the element on earth
What is Bohrs theory based on?
He directed light through a prism with a screen behind it. Then lines of certain colour shot through. Hydrogen is unique and doesn't have all the colours as everyone else.
All the electrons are in the lowest possible energy levels
The energy in an atom is higher than that in the ground state.
Pauli exclusion principle
Only 2 electrons of opposite spin can occupy one orbital
Building up. Each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available
All electrons in single occupied orbitals spin the same way.
Bond that results from sharing of a pair of electrons by 2 atoms.
Polar covalent bonds
A covalent bond formed between atoms with significantly different electronegativities resulting in a molecule with localized charges.
The electrostatic force of attraction between a positive ion and a negative ion bond them together
Three types of intermolecular forces
Dipole dipole forces
London dispersion forces
Dipole dipole forces
Van see Waals force. And attractive force between polar molecules. The positive end of one molecule is attracted to the negative end of one molecule
London dispersion forces
Van get Waals force
Weak attractive force acting between all atoms
A molecule that is slightly positively charged and slightly negatively charged at the other end due to electronegativity differences
Non polar molecules
The electrons are equally distributed among the atoms resulting in no localized charging
Products of combustion of a hydrocarbon
Co2 and h2o
Properties of metals
Shiny solid good conductors high melting points low electronegativity a lot of lister
Properties of non metals
Dull. Solids liquids and gases. Low density brittle. Poor conductors. No lister
The unique number of protons in one atom of an element.
The weighted average of all the naturally occur in isotopes of an element
How do you find the number of neutrons
How do you know the protons
It's the atomic number. As well as the number of electrons
A column of elements in the periodic table. Up and down
Same as group
A row on the periodic table of the elements. Left to right
1st column on periodic table most reactive metal
Alkali earth metals
2nd column. Pretty reactive metals
Have properties of metals and non metals
From row 3 to 13. The d orbital
Rare earth metals
Lanthanides and actinides. Below the periodic table
Column 18 full valence electrons
Most reactive gas column 17
Where is the s block located
Group 1 and 2 and helium
Where is the p block located
Where is the d block located?
Transition metals. Group 3-12
Where is the f block located?
Lanthanides and actinades below the table
When it has the same number of electrons as a noble gas
Reactivity of metals
The tendency metals have of losing electrons.
Increases going down. Decreases from left to right.
More energy levels so electrons can be pulled away easier
Reactivity of non metals
The tendency of a non metal to gain electrons.
Decreases going down. Increases left to right.
Because less energy levels means more attraction
The tendency for an atom to attract electrons to itself when it's chemically combined with another element
Which elements form ionic compounds?
Metal cations and nonmetal anions
Which elements form covalent bonds?
Non metals sharing electrons
Characteristics of ionic compounds
High melting and boiling points. Solids at room temperature. Conductive of electricity in aqueous solution. Crystalline structures
Characteristics of covalent bonds
Low melting and boiling points. Solid liquid or gas at room temperature. Non conductive of heat or electricity. Non crystalline
What does the period number refer to?
The number of energy levels