Flashcards in Review Quiz Deck (24):
Systematic reviews synthesise evidence from different types of studies depending on what type of research question is being asked.
A systematic review that syntheses evidence from cohort studies would most likely be answering what type of question?
What is the most fundamental error with this statement about prognosis: 'People treated with early ACL reconstruction after ACL rupture have a 16% risk of developing osteoarthritis.'
a. the physical activity level of the participants is not specified
b. the follow-up time period is not specified Correct
c. it is not clear which grading scale was used to define the presence of osteoarthritis
d. they haven't identified whether a patellar tendon or hamstring graft was used
What are the odds of flipping a coin and landing on tails?
Define positive predictive value
If a person tests positive, what is the probability that they have the condition
What proportion of all tests have given the correct result
Define positive likelihood ratio
How much more likely is a positive test to be found in a person with the condition that a person without the condition
The proportion of people who do not have the condition that the test correctly identifies
Define negative likelihood ratio
How much more likely is a negative test to be found in a person without the condition than a person with a condition
The proportion of people who have the condition that the test correctly identifies
Define negative predictive value
If a person tests negative, what is the probability that do not have the condition?
The odds of the event are 1:3, what is the risk (probability) of the event occurring?
1/4 = 25%
As with quantitative studies, large sample sizes are required in qualitative studies to ensure significance and completeness of the research data. True or false?
How large must a randomised trial be before the risk of an uneven distribution of confounders between group reaches zero?
This risk never reaches zero
Survival curves are only used in studies of mortality.
True or false?
Which of the following factors threaten internal validity of a study?
- Differences between the study population and the patients that I treat in my clinical practice.
Chance, bias and confounding all threaten internal validity
What does effectiveness refer to?
Interventions tested under real-world conditions
What does efficacy refer to?
Interventions tested under ideal conditions
In EBP, the P in PICO is short for what?
When a test is highly sensitive for a condition; this means that:
a. The test will identify the majority of people who have the condition
b. It is unlikely that someone with the condition will have a negative result on the test
c. Someone who does receive a negative result on the test is unlikely to have the condition
d. The test is good at ruling out the condition
e. All of the above
In grounded theory, theoretical samples of people work towards a point in which no new themes or issues emerge from the information and data. What is this point called?
In EBP, the O in PICO is short for what?
All participants from Springfield are allocated to the intervention group; all participants from Shelbyville are allocated to the control group. The allocation of one town to the intervention group was random. This is best described as what kind of randomisation?
The Stages of Change Theory can be used to guide implementation of health practices. In terms of the uptake of evidence-based practice, the comment "Using evidence-based techniques to guide my clinical practice would be good if it meant that I did not have to spend too much extra time reading journals", could be attributed to an individual in which state of behaviour change?