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Flashcards in Review Quiz Deck (24):
1

Systematic reviews synthesise evidence from different types of studies depending on what type of research question is being asked.
A systematic review that syntheses evidence from cohort studies would most likely be answering what type of question?

Prognosis

2

What is the most fundamental error with this statement about prognosis: 'People treated with early ACL reconstruction after ACL rupture have a 16% risk of developing osteoarthritis.'
Select one:
a. the physical activity level of the participants is not specified
b. the follow-up time period is not specified Correct
c. it is not clear which grading scale was used to define the presence of osteoarthritis
d. they haven't identified whether a patellar tendon or hamstring graft was used

B

3

What are the odds of flipping a coin and landing on tails?

1:1 (1)

4

Define positive predictive value

If a person tests positive, what is the probability that they have the condition

5

Define accuracy

What proportion of all tests have given the correct result

6

Define positive likelihood ratio

How much more likely is a positive test to be found in a person with the condition that a person without the condition

7

Define specificity

The proportion of people who do not have the condition that the test correctly identifies

8

Define negative likelihood ratio

How much more likely is a negative test to be found in a person without the condition than a person with a condition

9

Define sensitivity

The proportion of people who have the condition that the test correctly identifies

10

Define negative predictive value

If a person tests negative, what is the probability that do not have the condition?

11

The odds of the event are 1:3, what is the risk (probability) of the event occurring?

1/4 = 25%

12

As with quantitative studies, large sample sizes are required in qualitative studies to ensure significance and completeness of the research data. True or false?

False

13

How large must a randomised trial be before the risk of an uneven distribution of confounders between group reaches zero?

This risk never reaches zero

14

Survival curves are only used in studies of mortality.
True or false?

False

15

Which of the following factors threaten internal validity of a study?
- Chance
- Bias
- Confounding
- Differences between the study population and the patients that I treat in my clinical practice.

Chance, bias and confounding all threaten internal validity

16

What does effectiveness refer to?

Interventions tested under real-world conditions

17

What does efficacy refer to?

Interventions tested under ideal conditions

18

In EBP, the P in PICO is short for what?

Patient/problem

19

When a test is highly sensitive for a condition; this means that:
a. The test will identify the majority of people who have the condition
b. It is unlikely that someone with the condition will have a negative result on the test
c. Someone who does receive a negative result on the test is unlikely to have the condition
d. The test is good at ruling out the condition
e. All of the above

E

20

In grounded theory, theoretical samples of people work towards a point in which no new themes or issues emerge from the information and data. What is this point called?

Saturation point

21

In EBP, the O in PICO is short for what?

Outcome

22

All participants from Springfield are allocated to the intervention group; all participants from Shelbyville are allocated to the control group. The allocation of one town to the intervention group was random. This is best described as what kind of randomisation?

Cluster randomisation

23

The Stages of Change Theory can be used to guide implementation of health practices. In terms of the uptake of evidence-based practice, the comment "Using evidence-based techniques to guide my clinical practice would be good if it meant that I did not have to spend too much extra time reading journals", could be attributed to an individual in which state of behaviour change?

Contemplation

24

The evidence-to-practice pipeline highlights the steps and possible points of 'evidence leakage', involved in the path from the generation of research to its use in practice. A health professional who has trouble keeping up with the growing pool of information in their area of practice, is facing a barrier at which step in the pipeline?

Being aware of the evidence