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Know the following characteristics about Streptococcus pneumoniae:
Genus and species name
Gram reaction
Cell shape
Disease name
Virulence factors
Clinical symptoms of disease

Genus name: Streptococcus
species name:pneumoniae
Gram reaction: +
Cell shape: coccus
Disease name: pneumonia

Transmission:Air droplets person to person
Inhale encapsulated strain
Host must be susceptible

Virulence factors:Polysaccharide capsule:
more than 80 types(strains)
capsule is directly responsible for infection
unencapsulated strains are not pathogenic

Clinical symptoms of disease:Fever, chills
Shortness of breath, chest pain
Productive cough: sputum is thick, mucus-filled, pus, bacteria, dead tissue, blood
Alveoli fill with exudate

Treatment:Penicillin drug of choice
Early treatment best


Be able to translate the organism’s genus and species name into the English language as given in class.

Streptococcus - chain former / round shape
pneumonia - pneumonia / lungs


What virulence factor is directly responsible for this bacteria establishing infection?

capsule is directly responsible for infection


What are the two forms of the vaccine for Pneumococcal pneumonia?

Two Forms:
Adult Vaccine:
Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine
primarily for older adults
help control incidence of disease
made from 23 capsular Ags

Infant/Toddler Vaccine:
For children up to age 5
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
Protection for 3 years


What is pneumococcal disease in infants and toddlers?

Pneumococcal disease in children under age 5
Over 700 cases of meningitis
17,000 blood infections
5 million ear infections
Children under age 2 at highest risk
Prevention very important


Why is pneumococcal pneumonia usually a secondary infection in the lower respiratory tract?

Secondary infection: infection results due to an underlying infection or drug/alcohol abuse


What protective feature of the lower respiratory tract helps to protect an individual from pneumococcal pneumonia?

Mucociliary escalator effective in protecting lungs


What age group is most at risk for Pneumococcal pneumonia?

Children under age 2 at highest risk


What is meant by the expression “a patient is literally drowning on their own body fluid” with pneumococcal pneumonia?

Exudate is fluid that leaks out of blood vessels into tissue.
Patient suffocates on own body fluid(exudate)
No gas exchange occurs in exudate
Inflammatory response causes pain (pleurisy)


What is a rusty sputum?

sputum that has blood in it


What is exudate?

Exudate is fluid
Leaks out of blood vessels into tissue
May ooze from cuts, area of infection, or inflammation


What is bronchial pneumonia?

pneumonia in the bronchial


What is lobar pneumonia?

in only one lung/lobe


What is double pneumonia?

pneumonia in both lungs