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Of studies

- He discusses the purpose of studies and looks at the different ways to study
- Overall purpose is to persuade readers to utilise studies
- He speaks at great lengths of the values of studies to advise readers to use it to their advantage



- ‘Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability.’
- illustration to explain statement by means of specific examples
- Studies are utilised for personal use
- 'delight' = enjoy studying
- 'ornament' = decoration to improve themselves
- 'ability' = show able to do something


Definition of parallelism

- amplification through synonymia, making ideas salient by repeating in a different way
- Donne calls this parallelism


Deviation from parallelism

- Jakobson’s term parallelism if one of a pair, the other being deviation
- divergence from a norm, by breaking a pattern of parallelism that has already been established in the text


Example of?

- ‘Their chief use for delight, is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment, and disposition of business.’

- Parallelism
- Omits ‘the chief’ in the second and third parts in order to avoid repetition
Three prepositional phrases (pps) all start with a verb +preposition +noun (ellipsis of the noun in the last sentence) with the addition of the determiner ‘the’ +noun.
- The phrase ‘their chief use for delight’ the verb ‘to use’ takes three complements- privateness, discourse and judgement all are nouns


Example of?

- ‘To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament, is affectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules, is the humour of a scholar.’

- Parallelism
- Calls us not to spend too much time in studies, to use them often for ornament and to make judgement wholly by their rules, but to study for a feasible use and not entirely believe what the books say without relating to the reality.
- Three absolute sentences make up a long sentence
- The verb ‘to spend’ takes three complements- studies, ornaments and rules are all nouns.


Example of?

Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider.

- Parallelism
- The verb ‘to read’ takes three complements- contradict, believe and find all verbs
- The aim of reading and acquiring knowledge must not be to aggressively refute other’s views or accept the writers views as gospel truth