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Flashcards in Rhetorical Terms Deck (98):
1

Figurative language

An umbrella term that encompasses rhetorical terms that are inaccurate literally but call to mind sensation or evoke reactions

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Metaphor

An implied comparison that does not use the word like or ask

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Implied metaphor

A metaphor embedded in a sentence rather than expressed discreetly as a sentence.

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Simile

Comparison between 2 unlike things using like or as

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Personification

Language attributes human qualities to non-human subjects

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Hyperbole

An exaggeration for effect

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Metonymy

Referring something associated/related to it

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Synecdoche

A part of a whole

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Alliteration

The repetition of one or more initial sounds, usually consonants

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Understatement

An ironic minimizing for effect

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Diction

Word choice

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Concrete language

Language that describes specific, observational things. Physical, experience, senses

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Abstract language

Represents ideas of thoughts-generalities

Love, hope, sad

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Denotation

The dictionary definition of a word

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Connotation

How you think of a word.

Cop, police, po po mean the same thing as police officer

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Vernacular

Everyday speech.
Language of country

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Jargon

The specialized vocabulary of a group with a specialty

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Anglo-Saxon diction

Word choice characterized by simple nouns, adjectives and adverbs

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Latinate diction

Word choice derived from the Latin or Greek roots/prefixes/suffixes

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Tone

An attitude of a writer toward a subject or an audience.

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Repetition

Reinforcing a point by repeating the point. 3 is the goal.

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Parallelism

A set of similarly structured words, phrases, or clauses.

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Anadiplosis

The repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the following clause.

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Anaphora

The repetition of a group of words at the BEGINNING of successive clauses.

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Epistrophe

The repulsion of a group of words at he END of successive clauses.

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Antimetabole

The repetition of words in successive clauses in reverse grammatical order

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Simple sentence

One independent clause

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Compound sentence

2+ independent clauses

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Complex sentences

1+ dependent and 1 independent

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Compound complex

2+ independent and 1+ dependent

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Coordination

Combining sentences into one single sentence

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Subordination

Taking less important ideas and placing them in dependent clauses.

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Cliche

A figure of speech whose effectiveness has been worn out through overuse and excessive familiarity

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Idiom

A familiar grouping of words especially words that habitually appear together and thereby convey meaning by association

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Double entendre

A figure of speech in which a word or phrase can be understood in two ways

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Innuendo

A hint

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Parenthetical idea

Parentheses are used to set off an idea from the rest of the sentence

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Gerund

A verbal ending in -ing that functions as a noun

Swimming

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Infinitive

A verbal that function as a noun, adjective or adverb

To run

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Split infinitives

When the infinitive is interrupted with another word

To boldly go

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Agreement

Subject verb agreement

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Active voice

The subject of the sentence performs the action

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Passive voice

The subject of the sentence receives the action

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Ambiguity

Multiple meaning; intentionally vauge

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Rhetorical question

Question not asked for information but for effect

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Imagery

Language that evokes particular sensations or emotionally rich experiences

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Allegory

An extended metaphor

Has a deeper meaning: literally and metaphorically

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Allusion

A reference of something to create and effect or enrich the meaning of an idea

Trojan war, face of a thousand ships

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Parody

An exaggerated imitation of a serious work for humorous purposes

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Soliloquy

Dialogue in which a character speaks aloud to themselves

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Apostrophe

Where nature is addressed as though human

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Appositive

Helps explain the noun

Mousse, the dog, ran away

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Epithet

A word or phrase adding a characteristic to a persons name

Richard the lion heart

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Antonomasia

Substitution of a title

Elvis Presley "the king"

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Apology

An elaborate statement justifying some controversial position

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Auxesis

A gradual increase of importance

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Accumulation

Figure of speech on which a speaker or a writer gathers scattered points and lists them together

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Inversion

A figure in which language takes a sudden turn.

Build up then flip it

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Hyperbaton

A figure of speech that uses disruption or inversion of customary word order to produce a distinctive effect

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Ellipsis

The omission of words

...

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Satire

A work that reveals a critical attitude toward some element of life to a humorous effect

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Sarcasm

A generally bitter comment that is ironically worded, a way to mock if ridicule something

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Accismus

A form of irony where one pretends indifference and refuses something while actually wanting it

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Situational irony

Found in the plot

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Verbal irony/ antiphrasis

When you say something and mean the opposite/ something different

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Synesthesia

A technique adopted by writers to present ideas, characters, or places in such a manner that they appeal to more than one senses.

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Epigraph

A quotation at the beginning of a literary work suggestive theme

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Adage/aphorism/maxim

A piece of common wisdom

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Homily

Serious talk or speech. Sermon

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Eulogy

A formal expression of praise when someone has died

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Epistle

A poem or other literary work in the form of a letter

Dear....

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Antithesis

Opposite ideas. The juxtaposition of contrasting words or ideas

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Juxtaposition

Placing things side by side for comparison

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Oxymoron

A phase that is seemingly contradictory

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Paradox

A statement that seems untrue on the surface but is true nevertheless

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Undertone

An attitude that may lie under the tone of the piece

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Anachronism

Incorporating an event/person/thing that does not correspond with the time period

Ex. Cell phone in 1800s

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Symbolism

Anything that represents something else

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Analogy

Comparing like things

AB-CD

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Synesthesia

Appeal to more than one sense

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Asyndeton

Omission of fanboys

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Polysyndeton

Adding a lot of fanboys

Ex. And...and...and...

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Anthimeria

Substitution of one part of speech for another

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Anecdote

A brief narrative in text to capture audience or support claim

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Dialect

The patterns of language used by particular cultural or ethnic populations
-Like vernacular-

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Invective

Abusive language

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Dysphemism

Substitution of a more offensive or disparaging word/phrase for one considered less offensive
-more metaphorical-

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Cacophemism

A word/expression that is generally harsh, impolite, offensive

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Euphemism

An indirect expression of unpleasant information
-make it seem pleasant-

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Pun

Play on words

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Antistasis

Words that sound IDENTICAL but have different meanings

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Paronomasia

Word that sound SIMILAR but have different meanings

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Syllepsis

A word used differently in relation to two other words.

A connects to concept, B connects to concept, A and B aren't related

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Subject complement

The word or clauses that follows linking vets and completes the subject of the sentence by either renaming it or describing it

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Predicate adjective

Adjective clause that follows a linking verb

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Predicate nominative

A noun clause that names the subject

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Loose sentence

Main idea comes first. Puts it all there at the beginning

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Periodic sentence

Central meaning is at the end