Flashcards in Rhone Valley Deck (134):
Cote Rotie appellation created
Type of wine produced in Cote Rotie
Red wine only
Cote Rotie grape varieties authorized
Syrah and viognier (up to 20% Viognier can be added, but as a rule few producers utilize more than 5% in their wines).
Virtually all of the Viognier planted in Cote Rotie is on the Cote Blonde since the grape does not flourish well in the heavy clay and iron based soils of Cote Brune
Cote Rotie aging potential
Cote Rotie wine characteristics
Fleshy, rich, very fragrant, smoky, full bodied.
Cote Rotie greatest vintages
Cote Rotie aromatic profile
These intensely fragrant wines. Cassis, black raspberries,smoke, bacon fat, violets, olives, and grilled meats
Cote Rotie geography
Sits on the western bank of the Rhone with a perfect southeasterly exposure.
The slopes are incredibly steep and must be picked by hand. Machinery and, in most places, animals are useless.
While wine is made on the plateau above the hillsides, they don't enjoy the near perfect southeasterly exposure that the hillside vineyards posses.
There are two hillsides, one called Cote Blonde, and the other called Cote Brune
Cote Rotie training Method
Vertical pruning system called the Guyot method. Each vine must be held in these narrow encampments by vertical stakes that cannot be driven into the rocky ground without punishing labor
Cote Blonde and Cote Brune history
According to history, a feudal landlord named Lord Maugiron bequeathed these hillsides to his two daughters, one with blonde hair and the other with dark brown
Cote Rotie soil
Cote Brune, the northernmost slope, has more clay and iron. Cote Blonde has more sand, granulated, and limestone.
3 Styles of Cote Rotie producers
Resistant to change and produce Cote Rotie the way it has always been produced. Some wines can be marvelous, others can posses off aromas, flawed because unsanitary, old barrels are used. Moreover, the refusal to deafen the grapes, even in years when the stems are not ripe, can result in vegetal wine.
Flexible and open minded winemakers who weigh the advantages of old methods with those of modern day techniques. The largest group of Cote Rotie producers fall in this category.
Have repudiated ancient methods in the cellar, but not in the vineyard. Many of these producers are the architects behind Cote Rotie's greatest wines.
*Things they have in common*
1. Reduce yields
2. Take risks by harvesting late, gathering in very ripe fruit.
3. Utilize high percentages of new oak casks for aging
Condrieu and chateau Grillet appellation created
Condrieu and chateau Grillet type of wine produced
White wine only
Condrieu and chateau Grillet grape varieties authorized
Condrieu and chateau Grillet aging potential
Condrieu: 1-4 years
Chateau Grillet: 4-8 years
Condrieu and chateau Grillet general characteristics
An exotic, often overwhelming apricot/peach/honeysuckle fragrance is followed by low acid, very rich wines that are usually short lived.
Condrieu and chateau Grillet aromatic profile
Honesysuckle, peaches, apricots, and candies tropical fruit aromas should soar from the glass.
Condrieu soil type
Chalky Decomposed rock, granite, mica, schist, and some clay
Hugs the western bank of the Rhone River. Terraces are planted on the south and southeast to receive the full benefit of the morning and midday sun. This is important especially because Viognier is prone to mildew.
Slopes are steep and producers have problems with soil erosion due to heavy rains. The soil has to be constantly replenished by manual labor. Machines are virtually impossible
Hermitage appellation created
Hermitage types of wine produced
Red, white, and Vin de paille, a dessert style white wine
Hermitage grape varieties planted
Syrah for the red wine; primarily Marianne and some Roussanne for the white wine; up to 15% white wine grapes can be blended with the red wine.
Hermitage quality level
Remarkable for red wines, good for the white wines
Hermitage Aging potential
Red wine: 5-40+ years
White wine: 3-25 years
Hermitage general characteristics
Rich, viscous very full bodied tannic red wines.
Full bodied white wines with a unique scent of herbs, minerals, nuts, and leaches
Hermitage greatest vintages
2016, 2015, 2012, 2010, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1998, 1995, 1991, 1990, 1989, 1979, 1978, 1972, 1970, 1966, 1961, 1959
Hermitage aromatic profile
Cassis, black pepper, tar, and very ripe red and black fruits characterized young vintage. With a decade of bottle age, cedar spice, and cassis.
Pineapple aromas intertwine with acacia flowers, peach, and honey scents. With extended age (15 years or more) scents of smoked nuts, Fink sherry, and honey can be overpowering
Hermitage textural profiles
Full bodied, powerful, and tannic, as well as resistant to oxidation. A wine that ages at a glacial pace.
Fruity, full bodied, and fragrant when young, white Hermitage closes down after 4-5 years of bottle age, only to reemerge 15-25 years later as a flattering, dry, thick white wine.
In the 13th century, a crusader named Gaspard de Stérimberg was wounded in war and sought refuge on top of the hill. He built a chapel where he lived in self imposed solitude
Cornas appellation created
Cornas type of wine produced
Red wine only
Cornas grape varieties authorized
Cornas aging potential
Cornas general characteristics
Black/ruby in color, very tannic, full bodied, virile, robust wines with powerful aromas and rustic personalities.
Cornas great vintages
2015, 2010, 2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001, 1999
Cornas aromatic profile
Black fruit, earth, minerals, ocationally truffles, smoked herbs and meats
The appellation lies on the western bank of the Rhone. The sun drenched vineyards sit in an amphitheater like setting with a South and southwesterly exposure, but the configuration of the surrounding hills gives cornas protection from the sever, turbulent winds that affect the vineyards of Cote Rotie and hermitage.
Because the wind is blocked, the summer's heat is intensified. The Syrah is baked in the hot summer sun
Mostly granite, with some limestone and clay
Crozes Hermitage appellation created
Crozes Hermitage types of wine produced
Red and white
Crozes Hermitage grape varieties authorized
Red: Syrah ( 90% of appellation' production)
White: marssanne and roussanne
Crozes Hermitage quality levels
Mediocre to good
Crozes Hermitage geography
All vineyards are on The eastern side or left bank of the Rhone.
St Joseph appellation created
St Joseph types of wine produced
Red and white
St Joseph grape varieties planted
White: Marsanne and roussanne
St Joseph quality level
Average to excellent
St Joseph aging potential
Red: 3-8 years
White: 1-5 years
St Joseph general characteristics
The red wines are the lightest, fruitier, and most feminine of the norther Rhone. The white wines are perfumes and fleshy with scents of apricots and pears
St Joseph geography
All on the western bank of the Rhone river. Many areas are undesirable for top quality vineyards because they are planted on fertile, flat bottom valley soils as well as on steep, granite hillsides
St. Péray appellation created
St. Péray type of wine produced
Still and sparkling wine
St. Péray grape varieties planted
Marsanne and roussanne
St. Péray quality level
Below average to average
St. Péray aging potential
St. Péray geography
Situated across from Valence on the west bank of the Rhone
Distance between north and south Rhone
Approx 60 miles
Noticeable things when driving from north to south Rhone
Nuclear power plants, less lush vegetation, and the topography reflects the windswept and sun drenched climate of the southern Rhone. The southern Rhone has a drier, hotter, breezier Mediterranean influenced clinate than the north.
In northern Rhone, nearly every vineyard is whithin view of the Rhone river, and all the best growing sites are on steep, terraced hillsides that flank the river. In the south, there are plenty of hillside appaletions, but none steep like in the north.
Vacqueyras appellation created
Vacqueyras type of wine produced
Red wine (95%)
Vacqueyras grape varieties planted
Grenache, Syrah, Mourvèdre, and Cinsault
Grenache Blanc, Clairette, and Bourboulenc
Vacqueyras quality level
Average to good
Vacqueyras again potential
There are red, sandy soils and other vineyards have galets roulés. This area possesses searing heat exacerbated by the sever mistral winds
Châteauneuf de Pape appellation created
Châteauneuf de Pape type of wine produced
Châteauneuf de Pape grape Varieties planted
Grenache, Syrah, Mourvèdre, cinsault, muscardin, Counoise, Vaccarèse, and Terret Noir.
Grenache Blanc, Clairette, bpurboulenc, Roussanne, picpoul, and Picardin
Châteauneuf de Pape aging potential
Red: 5-20 years
White: 1-3 years
Controls set by Baron Le Roy
In 1923, He stipulated that in order for a wine to be entitled to the name of Châteauneuf du pape, it had to satisfy the following criteria:
They had to be produced from a precise delineation for the area in which the vineyards were to be planted.
Only specific grape varieties could be grown within this area
The vine density must not be less than 2,500 vines per hectare and cannot exceed 3,000 vines per hectare.
Vines must be at least 4 years of age to be included in the wine.
Machine harvesting is not allowed in Chateauneuf du Pape. All growers must harvest 100% of their fruit by hand.
Vines are allowed to be irrigated no more than twice a year. However, irrigation is only allowed when a vintages is clearly suffering due to a severe drought. If a property wishes to irrigate due to drought, they must apply for permission from the INAO. Any watering must take place before August 15.
wine must be at least 12.5% alcohol and chaptalization was not allowed.
No vineyard can be planted on land that wasn't arid enough to support the plantings of Lava set and thyme.
At harvest time, 5% of the crop had to be discarded, regardless of quality.
No rosé wine could be made, and all wines were to be submitted to a tasting panel before they were allowed to bear the name Châteauneuf du Pape.
These were legislated by the appellation in 1936
Châteauneuf du Pape geography
Châteauneuf du Pape's vineyards are about 8.5 miles in length and 5 miles wide. The west is bounded by the Rhone river, and the east by the modern A7 autoroute. To the north, there is Orange, and to the south Route National N7 and the town of Sorghes.
The most prominent characteristic of these vineyards is the carpet of huge stones, typically Quartzite, ranging in size from cantaloupes to footballs, called galets roulés. These rust-colored boulders are left by Alpine glaciers that once covered the region and have been smoothed out over a millennia by the Rhone. The stones retain heat during the day and release it at night which can have an effect of hastening the ripening of grapes. The stones can also serve as a protective layer to help retain moisture in the soil during the dry summer months.
The lower part of Châteauneuf du Pape, in the direction of Sorgues, has very few of these boulders, as the soil is mostly gravelly decomposed rock intermixed with both clay and sand. Many of the famous vineyards that do not possess the stones are often vineyards located on south facing slopes where the night time radiated heat from the stones would be detrimental to the vines and cause over ripening of the grapes
Gigondas appellation created
Gigondas type of wine produced
Gigondas grape Varieties planted
Grenache, Syrah, Mourvèdre, and Cincault
Gigondas quality level
Average to exceptional
Gigondas aging potential
Sits on a sheltered spot at the foot of a craggy set of limestone needles that seem to explode upward from the earth. They are called the Dentelles de Montmirail.
Composed largely of 3 sectors:
On the relatively flat plainfanning out to the west as one approaches Gigondas, the soil is a combination of gravel and clay. The most torrid microclimate of Gigondas, this is the portion of the appellation where many of the most robust and powerful wines emerge.
Heading east toward the village of Gigondas, the lower slopes of the formidable Dentelles Mountains possess less clay and more sand and gravel.
Behind the village of Gigondas are numerous hillside vineyards, often cut from the slopes of the mountains. These craggy sites possess a cooler microclimate, and the soils are primarily limestone and splintered rock, as well as some clay
Tavel appellation created
Tavel type of wine produced
Dry rosé only. The sole appellation in France to recognize rosé as the only authorized wine.
Tavel grape varieties
There are 9 authorized varieties: Grenache, Concault, clairette, Syrah, bourboulenc, Mourvèdre,Picpoul, carignan, and Calitor.
Average to very good rosé wines
Tavel aging potential
How Tavel Rosé is made
Most Tavel is created when Freshly picked whole grapes are stacked on top of each other in stainless steel tanks, letting their weight do a light crushing, and then permitting the juice to sit with the skins for 1-2 days. All of this must be done carefully at cool temperatures to prevent the oxidation of the aromatic intensity and freshness bouquet.
The second method, commonly employed elsewhere in the world, but not often in Tavel, is called the Saignée (bleeding) method. It involves making rosé as a by-product of red wine fermentation. They take the top of the vat where the wine is still pink and use that to make rosé. The rest of the wine in the tank becomes more concentrated red wine because of the now higher grape skin to juice ratio.
Malolactic fermentation is blocked, then the wines are sterile filtered and bottled within 4-6 months.
Lirac Appellation created
Lirac type of wine produced
Lirac grape varieties planted
Grenache, Syrah, Mourvèdre, Cinsault, and Carignan
Grenache Blanc, Clairette, bourboulenc, ugni Blanc, picpoul, Marsanne, Roussanne, and Viognier
Lirac quality level
Mediocre to good
Lirac aging potential
The vineyards tend to be on gradually sloping hillsides, some on stony plateaus. Lirac has well drained gravel and stone studded soil
Côtes du Vivarais appellation created
Côtes du Vivarais type of wine produced
Côtes du Vivarais grape varieties planted
Grenache, Syrah, Carignan, and cincault
Clairette, Grenache blanc, and Marsanne, Chardonnay
Côtes du Vivarais geography
Mediterranean climate with cool mountain winds. The soil is limestone marl
Vacqueyras appellation created
Mediterranean climate. The best vineyards are found on top of Plateau Garrigues.
Cotes du Rhone appellation created
Cotes du Rhone aging potential
Over 95% of every bottle of Cotes du Rhone, whether red, white, rosé, should be drunk early
Grignan les adhemar appellation created
Grignan les adhemar important factor affecting wine's reputation
The wine region was formerly called Coteaux du Tricastin, but after an accident in 2008 at the Tricastin nuclear power plant released uranium, the prices of all of their wines decreased. They changed their name to disassociate with the accident.
5 producers of Côte Rôtie
Jean Paul et Jean luc Jamet
5 Condrieu producers
5 hermitage producers
Paul Jaboulet Ainé
5 cornas producers
Jean Luc Colombo
5 crozes hermitage producers
Domaine du Colombier
5 st Joseph producers
Domaine du Chêne
5 st péray producers
Jean françois Chaboud
Pierre et Guy Darona
Jean Marie Teysseire
Jean Louis Thiers
5 producers of Vacqueyras
Domaine des Amouriers
Domaine de la Charbonnière
Chateau des tours
5 Châteauneuf du Pape producers
Domaine de Beaurenard
Clos des Papes
Le Vieux Donjon
5 Gigondas producers
Domaine de Cayron
Les hauts de Montmirail
Domaine santa Duc
Domaine du terme
5 producers of Tavel
Domaine Canto perdrix
Domaine corne loup
Chateau de Trinquevedel
5 Lirac producers
Domaine de cantegril
Domaine Roger Sabon
Chateau st roch
Chateau de ségriès
Domaines les Costes
Grape requirements for Crozes Hermitage
Min 85% Syrah with maximum combination of 15% marsanne and roussanne
The northern Rhone extends from what city to which city?
Vienne to Valence
What producer released the first estate bottled Châteauneuf du Pape? In what year?
Chateau la nerthe in 1785
What is the largest AOP in southern Rhone
Cotes du Rhone
What does cofermenting with Viognier provide for the wines of Cote Rotie
Stabilizes red wine color and moderates tannin extraction
For how long must Crémant de Die rest on its lees? How long must it age prior to release?
9 months on its lees and 12 months total before release
What is the minimum RS that must remain for Méthode Dioise Ancestrale?
When did Clement V move the Papal court to Avignon?
What are the worst vintages for the 2000s for northern Rhone Syrah?
What are the 3 "La La" wines produced by E. Guigal?
What are the first vintages on the La Las?
La mouline 1966
La Landonne 1978
La Turque 1985
Which appellations in southern Rhone require hand harvesting?
Beaume de Venise
Châteauneuf du Pape
Minimum alcohol percentage for Condrieu?
What producer vinifies 40% of all Cote Rotie produced?
What wind blows through Cote Rotie
Vinification in Cote Rotie
Often fermented in stainless steel tanks at most properties. Some older, traditional domaines still use cement vats. AOC law states that for estates adding Viognier to their wine, the two must be cofermented.
To age the wine, top Cote Rotie producers use 100% new French oak barrels, most notably Guigal with its famous La La wines. Other top producers use closer to 50% or less new oak barrels. Most wineries age their wine for 18-36 months
Vinification in Condrieu
Fermented in French oak barrels. Some growers use a combination of stainless steel tanks and French oak barrels. There is skin contact and malolactic fermentation, which takes place in the barrel.
The wines are aged on their lees anywhere from 6-18 months before bottling.
What wind blows through hermitage
Vinification in Hermitage
Some estates ferment their wine in open top, large oak fermenters, others use concrete tanks and stainless steel tanks. A few house use 100% new French oak to age, but most estates use 30% or less new oak barrels. Most wineries age for 18 months or less.
For hermitage Blanc, grapes are fermented most often in casks. Some use stainless steel bats. Malolactic fermentation takes place in these casks or stainless steel vats. Hermitage Blanc is aged on its lees for about 8-12 months in 30%-70% new oak barrels.
At many estates, fermentation takes place in open top, traditional cement vats. Others prefer stainless steel tanks. Very few domaines use a lot of new French oak barrels to age their wine.
Fermentation is performed in traditional concrete tanks. Many cooperatives use stainless steel vats. Punch overs and cap punching are common. On average, the majority of producers age their wine in a combination of new and used French oak barrels for 9-12 months.
St Joseph vinification
Fermented in stainless steel tanks and aged in varying percentages of new French oak barrels for 12-15 months.