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Flashcards in Rhone Valley Deck (134):
1

Cote Rotie appellation created

1940

2

Type of wine produced in Cote Rotie

Red wine only

3

Cote Rotie grape varieties authorized

Syrah and viognier (up to 20% Viognier can be added, but as a rule few producers utilize more than 5% in their wines).

Virtually all of the Viognier planted in Cote Rotie is on the Cote Blonde since the grape does not flourish well in the heavy clay and iron based soils of Cote Brune

4

Cote Rotie aging potential

5-30 years

5

Cote Rotie wine characteristics

Fleshy, rich, very fragrant, smoky, full bodied.

6

Cote Rotie greatest vintages

1995
1991
1990
1989
1988
1985
1983
1978
1976
1969

7

Cote Rotie aromatic profile

These intensely fragrant wines. Cassis, black raspberries,smoke, bacon fat, violets, olives, and grilled meats

8

Cote Rotie geography

Sits on the western bank of the Rhone with a perfect southeasterly exposure.

The slopes are incredibly steep and must be picked by hand. Machinery and, in most places, animals are useless.

While wine is made on the plateau above the hillsides, they don't enjoy the near perfect southeasterly exposure that the hillside vineyards posses.

There are two hillsides, one called Cote Blonde, and the other called Cote Brune

9

Cote Rotie training Method

Vertical pruning system called the Guyot method. Each vine must be held in these narrow encampments by vertical stakes that cannot be driven into the rocky ground without punishing labor

10

Cote Blonde and Cote Brune history

According to history, a feudal landlord named Lord Maugiron bequeathed these hillsides to his two daughters, one with blonde hair and the other with dark brown

11

Cote Rotie soil

Cote Brune, the northernmost slope, has more clay and iron. Cote Blonde has more sand, granulated, and limestone.

12

3 Styles of Cote Rotie producers

1: traditionalists
Resistant to change and produce Cote Rotie the way it has always been produced. Some wines can be marvelous, others can posses off aromas, flawed because unsanitary, old barrels are used. Moreover, the refusal to deafen the grapes, even in years when the stems are not ripe, can result in vegetal wine.

2. Liberators
Flexible and open minded winemakers who weigh the advantages of old methods with those of modern day techniques. The largest group of Cote Rotie producers fall in this category.

3. Revolutionaries
Have repudiated ancient methods in the cellar, but not in the vineyard. Many of these producers are the architects behind Cote Rotie's greatest wines.

*Things they have in common*
1. Reduce yields
2. Take risks by harvesting late, gathering in very ripe fruit.
3. Utilize high percentages of new oak casks for aging

13

Condrieu and chateau Grillet appellation created

1940

14

Condrieu and chateau Grillet type of wine produced

White wine only

15

Condrieu and chateau Grillet grape varieties authorized

Viognier

16

Condrieu and chateau Grillet aging potential

Condrieu: 1-4 years
Chateau Grillet: 4-8 years

17

Condrieu and chateau Grillet general characteristics

An exotic, often overwhelming apricot/peach/honeysuckle fragrance is followed by low acid, very rich wines that are usually short lived.

18

Condrieu and chateau Grillet aromatic profile

Honesysuckle, peaches, apricots, and candies tropical fruit aromas should soar from the glass.

19

Condrieu soil type

Chalky Decomposed rock, granite, mica, schist, and some clay

20

Condrieu geaography

Hugs the western bank of the Rhone River. Terraces are planted on the south and southeast to receive the full benefit of the morning and midday sun. This is important especially because Viognier is prone to mildew.

Slopes are steep and producers have problems with soil erosion due to heavy rains. The soil has to be constantly replenished by manual labor. Machines are virtually impossible

21

Hermitage appellation created

1937

22

Hermitage types of wine produced

Red, white, and Vin de paille, a dessert style white wine

23

Hermitage grape varieties planted

Syrah for the red wine; primarily Marianne and some Roussanne for the white wine; up to 15% white wine grapes can be blended with the red wine.

24

Hermitage quality level

Remarkable for red wines, good for the white wines

25

Hermitage Aging potential

Red wine: 5-40+ years
White wine: 3-25 years

26

Hermitage general characteristics

Rich, viscous very full bodied tannic red wines.

Full bodied white wines with a unique scent of herbs, minerals, nuts, and leaches

27

Hermitage greatest vintages

2016, 2015, 2012, 2010, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1998, 1995, 1991, 1990, 1989, 1979, 1978, 1972, 1970, 1966, 1961, 1959

28

Hermitage aromatic profile

Red hermitage:
Cassis, black pepper, tar, and very ripe red and black fruits characterized young vintage. With a decade of bottle age, cedar spice, and cassis.

White hermitage:
Pineapple aromas intertwine with acacia flowers, peach, and honey scents. With extended age (15 years or more) scents of smoked nuts, Fink sherry, and honey can be overpowering

29

Hermitage textural profiles

Red hermitage:
Full bodied, powerful, and tannic, as well as resistant to oxidation. A wine that ages at a glacial pace.

White hermitage:
Fruity, full bodied, and fragrant when young, white Hermitage closes down after 4-5 years of bottle age, only to reemerge 15-25 years later as a flattering, dry, thick white wine.

30

Hermitage history

In the 13th century, a crusader named Gaspard de Stérimberg was wounded in war and sought refuge on top of the hill. He built a chapel where he lived in self imposed solitude

31

Cornas appellation created

1938

32

Cornas type of wine produced

Red wine only

33

Cornas grape varieties authorized

Syrah only

34

Cornas aging potential

5-20 years

35

Cornas general characteristics

Black/ruby in color, very tannic, full bodied, virile, robust wines with powerful aromas and rustic personalities.

36

Cornas great vintages

2015, 2010, 2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001, 1999

37

Cornas aromatic profile

Black fruit, earth, minerals, ocationally truffles, smoked herbs and meats

38

Cornas geography

The appellation lies on the western bank of the Rhone. The sun drenched vineyards sit in an amphitheater like setting with a South and southwesterly exposure, but the configuration of the surrounding hills gives cornas protection from the sever, turbulent winds that affect the vineyards of Cote Rotie and hermitage.

Because the wind is blocked, the summer's heat is intensified. The Syrah is baked in the hot summer sun

39

Cornas soils

Mostly granite, with some limestone and clay

40

Crozes Hermitage appellation created

1937

41

Crozes Hermitage types of wine produced

Red and white

42

Crozes Hermitage grape varieties authorized

Red: Syrah ( 90% of appellation' production)

White: marssanne and roussanne

43

Crozes Hermitage quality levels

Mediocre to good

44

Crozes Hermitage geography

All vineyards are on The eastern side or left bank of the Rhone.

45

St Joseph appellation created

1956

46

St Joseph types of wine produced

Red and white

47

St Joseph grape varieties planted

Red: Syrah

White: Marsanne and roussanne

48

St Joseph quality level

Average to excellent

49

St Joseph aging potential

Red: 3-8 years

White: 1-5 years

50

St Joseph general characteristics

The red wines are the lightest, fruitier, and most feminine of the norther Rhone. The white wines are perfumes and fleshy with scents of apricots and pears

51

St Joseph geography

All on the western bank of the Rhone river. Many areas are undesirable for top quality vineyards because they are planted on fertile, flat bottom valley soils as well as on steep, granite hillsides

52

St. Péray appellation created

1936

53

St. Péray type of wine produced

Still and sparkling wine

54

St. Péray grape varieties planted

Marsanne and roussanne

55

St. Péray quality level

Below average to average

56

St. Péray aging potential

2-4 years

57

St. Péray geography

Situated across from Valence on the west bank of the Rhone

58

Distance between north and south Rhone

Approx 60 miles

59

Noticeable things when driving from north to south Rhone

Nuclear power plants, less lush vegetation, and the topography reflects the windswept and sun drenched climate of the southern Rhone. The southern Rhone has a drier, hotter, breezier Mediterranean influenced clinate than the north.

In northern Rhone, nearly every vineyard is whithin view of the Rhone river, and all the best growing sites are on steep, terraced hillsides that flank the river. In the south, there are plenty of hillside appaletions, but none steep like in the north.

60

Vacqueyras appellation created

1990

61

Vacqueyras type of wine produced

Red wine (95%)
Rosé (4%)
White 1%)

62

Vacqueyras grape varieties planted

Red:
Grenache, Syrah, Mourvèdre, and Cinsault

White:
Grenache Blanc, Clairette, and Bourboulenc

63

Vacqueyras quality level

Average to good

64

Vacqueyras again potential

4-12 years

65

Vacqueyras geography

There are red, sandy soils and other vineyards have galets roulés. This area possesses searing heat exacerbated by the sever mistral winds

66

Châteauneuf de Pape appellation created

1936

67

Châteauneuf de Pape type of wine produced

Red (93%)
White (7%)

68

Châteauneuf de Pape grape Varieties planted

Red:
Grenache, Syrah, Mourvèdre, cinsault, muscardin, Counoise, Vaccarèse, and Terret Noir.

White:
Grenache Blanc, Clairette, bpurboulenc, Roussanne, picpoul, and Picardin

69

Châteauneuf de Pape aging potential

Red: 5-20 years

White: 1-3 years

70

Controls set by Baron Le Roy

In 1923, He stipulated that in order for a wine to be entitled to the name of Châteauneuf du pape, it had to satisfy the following criteria:

1.
They had to be produced from a precise delineation for the area in which the vineyards were to be planted.

2.
Only specific grape varieties could be grown within this area

3.
The vine density must not be less than 2,500 vines per hectare and cannot exceed 3,000 vines per hectare.

4.
Vines must be at least 4 years of age to be included in the wine.

5.
Machine harvesting is not allowed in Chateauneuf du Pape. All growers must harvest 100% of their fruit by hand.

6.
Vines are allowed to be irrigated no more than twice a year. However, irrigation is only allowed when a vintages is clearly suffering due to a severe drought. If a property wishes to irrigate due to drought, they must apply for permission from the INAO. Any watering must take place before August 15.

7.
wine must be at least 12.5% alcohol and chaptalization was not allowed.

8.
No vineyard can be planted on land that wasn't arid enough to support the plantings of Lava set and thyme.

9.
At harvest time, 5% of the crop had to be discarded, regardless of quality.

10.
No rosé wine could be made, and all wines were to be submitted to a tasting panel before they were allowed to bear the name Châteauneuf du Pape.

These were legislated by the appellation in 1936

71

Châteauneuf du Pape geography

Châteauneuf du Pape's vineyards are about 8.5 miles in length and 5 miles wide. The west is bounded by the Rhone river, and the east by the modern A7 autoroute. To the north, there is Orange, and to the south Route National N7 and the town of Sorghes.

The most prominent characteristic of these vineyards is the carpet of huge stones, typically Quartzite, ranging in size from cantaloupes to footballs, called galets roulés. These rust-colored boulders are left by Alpine glaciers that once covered the region and have been smoothed out over a millennia by the Rhone. The stones retain heat during the day and release it at night which can have an effect of hastening the ripening of grapes. The stones can also serve as a protective layer to help retain moisture in the soil during the dry summer months.

The lower part of Châteauneuf du Pape, in the direction of Sorgues, has very few of these boulders, as the soil is mostly gravelly decomposed rock intermixed with both clay and sand. Many of the famous vineyards that do not possess the stones are often vineyards located on south facing slopes where the night time radiated heat from the stones would be detrimental to the vines and cause over ripening of the grapes

72

Gigondas appellation created

1971

73

Gigondas type of wine produced

Red (97%)

Rosé (3%)

74

Gigondas grape Varieties planted

Grenache, Syrah, Mourvèdre, and Cincault

75

Gigondas quality level

Average to exceptional

76

Gigondas aging potential

5-15 years

77

Gigondas geography

Sits on a sheltered spot at the foot of a craggy set of limestone needles that seem to explode upward from the earth. They are called the Dentelles de Montmirail.

Composed largely of 3 sectors:

1.
On the relatively flat plainfanning out to the west as one approaches Gigondas, the soil is a combination of gravel and clay. The most torrid microclimate of Gigondas, this is the portion of the appellation where many of the most robust and powerful wines emerge.

2.
Heading east toward the village of Gigondas, the lower slopes of the formidable Dentelles Mountains possess less clay and more sand and gravel.

3.
Behind the village of Gigondas are numerous hillside vineyards, often cut from the slopes of the mountains. These craggy sites possess a cooler microclimate, and the soils are primarily limestone and splintered rock, as well as some clay

78

Tavel appellation created

1936

79

Tavel type of wine produced

Dry rosé only. The sole appellation in France to recognize rosé as the only authorized wine.

80

Tavel grape varieties

There are 9 authorized varieties: Grenache, Concault, clairette, Syrah, bourboulenc, Mourvèdre,Picpoul, carignan, and Calitor.

81

Tavel qualitylevel

Average to very good rosé wines

82

Tavel aging potential

1-3 years

83

How Tavel Rosé is made

Most Tavel is created when Freshly picked whole grapes are stacked on top of each other in stainless steel tanks, letting their weight do a light crushing, and then permitting the juice to sit with the skins for 1-2 days. All of this must be done carefully at cool temperatures to prevent the oxidation of the aromatic intensity and freshness bouquet.

The second method, commonly employed elsewhere in the world, but not often in Tavel, is called the Saignée (bleeding) method. It involves making rosé as a by-product of red wine fermentation. They take the top of the vat where the wine is still pink and use that to make rosé. The rest of the wine in the tank becomes more concentrated red wine because of the now higher grape skin to juice ratio.

Malolactic fermentation is blocked, then the wines are sterile filtered and bottled within 4-6 months.

84

Lirac Appellation created

1947

85

Lirac type of wine produced

Red ((75%)

Rosé (20%)

White (5%)

86

Lirac grape varieties planted

Red:
Grenache, Syrah, Mourvèdre, Cinsault, and Carignan

White:
Grenache Blanc, Clairette, bourboulenc, ugni Blanc, picpoul, Marsanne, Roussanne, and Viognier

87

Lirac quality level

Mediocre to good

88

Lirac aging potential

2-8 years

89

Lirac geography

The vineyards tend to be on gradually sloping hillsides, some on stony plateaus. Lirac has well drained gravel and stone studded soil

90

Côtes du Vivarais appellation created

1999

91

Côtes du Vivarais type of wine produced

Red (80%)
white (5%)
rosé (15%)

92

Côtes du Vivarais grape varieties planted

Red:
Grenache, Syrah, Carignan, and cincault

White:
Clairette, Grenache blanc, and Marsanne, Chardonnay

93

Côtes du Vivarais geography

Mediterranean climate with cool mountain winds. The soil is limestone marl

94

Vacqueyras appellation created

1990

95

Vacqueyras geography

Mediterranean climate. The best vineyards are found on top of Plateau Garrigues.

96

Cotes du Rhone appellation created

1937

97

Cotes du Rhone aging potential

Over 95% of every bottle of Cotes du Rhone, whether red, white, rosé, should be drunk early

98

Grignan les adhemar appellation created

1973

99

Grignan les adhemar important factor affecting wine's reputation

The wine region was formerly called Coteaux du Tricastin, but after an accident in 2008 at the Tricastin nuclear power plant released uranium, the prices of all of their wines decreased. They changed their name to disassociate with the accident.

100

5 producers of Côte Rôtie

Chapoutier
Domaine Clusel-Roch
Guigal
Jean Paul et Jean luc Jamet
René Rostaing

101

5 Condrieu producers

Yves Cuilleron
George Vernay
Yves Gangloff
Guigal
André perret

102

5 hermitage producers

Chapoutier
J.L. Chave
Bernard Faurie
Paul Jaboulet Ainé
Marc Sorrel

103

5 cornas producers

August Clape
Jean Luc Colombo
Noel Verset
Alain Voge
Thierry Allemand

104

5 crozes hermitage producers

Albert Belle
Chapoutier
Domaine du Colombier
Domaine combier
Alain Graillot

105

5 st Joseph producers

Chapoutier
J.L. Chave
Domaine du Chêne
Yves Cuilleron
Bernard Faurie

106

5 st péray producers

Jean françois Chaboud
Pierre et Guy Darona
Jean Marie Teysseire
Jean Louis Thiers
Auguste Clape

107

5 producers of Vacqueyras

Domaine des Amouriers
Domaine de la Charbonnière
Tardieu Laurent
Chateau des tours
Domaine couroulu

108

5 Châteauneuf du Pape producers

Chateau Beaucastel
Domaine de Beaurenard
Les Cailloux
Clos des Papes
Le Vieux Donjon

109

5 Gigondas producers

Domaine de Cayron
Les hauts de Montmirail
Domaine santa Duc
Tardieu Laurent
Domaine du terme

110

5 producers of Tavel

Chateau d'Acqueria
Domaine Canto perdrix
Domaine corne loup
Guigal
Chateau de Trinquevedel

111

5 Lirac producers

Domaine de cantegril
Domaine Roger Sabon
Chateau st roch
Chateau de ségriès
Domaines les Costes

112

Grape requirements for Crozes Hermitage

Min 85% Syrah with maximum combination of 15% marsanne and roussanne

113

The northern Rhone extends from what city to which city?

Vienne to Valence

114

What producer released the first estate bottled Châteauneuf du Pape? In what year?

Chateau la nerthe in 1785

115

What is the largest AOP in southern Rhone

Cotes du Rhone

116

What does cofermenting with Viognier provide for the wines of Cote Rotie

Stabilizes red wine color and moderates tannin extraction

117

For how long must Crémant de Die rest on its lees? How long must it age prior to release?

9 months on its lees and 12 months total before release

118

What is the minimum RS that must remain for Méthode Dioise Ancestrale?

35 g/l

119

When did Clement V move the Papal court to Avignon?

1309

120

What are the worst vintages for the 2000s for northern Rhone Syrah?

2002, 2008

121

What are the 3 "La La" wines produced by E. Guigal?

La mouline
La Landonne
La Turque

122

What are the first vintages on the La Las?

La mouline 1966
La Landonne 1978
La Turque 1985

123

Which appellations in southern Rhone require hand harvesting?

Beaume de Venise
Châteauneuf du Pape
Gigondas

124

Minimum alcohol percentage for Condrieu?

11.5%

125

What producer vinifies 40% of all Cote Rotie produced?

E. Guigal

126

What wind blows through Cote Rotie

La Bise

127

Vinification in Cote Rotie

Often fermented in stainless steel tanks at most properties. Some older, traditional domaines still use cement vats. AOC law states that for estates adding Viognier to their wine, the two must be cofermented.

To age the wine, top Cote Rotie producers use 100% new French oak barrels, most notably Guigal with its famous La La wines. Other top producers use closer to 50% or less new oak barrels. Most wineries age their wine for 18-36 months

128

Vinification in Condrieu

Fermented in French oak barrels. Some growers use a combination of stainless steel tanks and French oak barrels. There is skin contact and malolactic fermentation, which takes place in the barrel.

The wines are aged on their lees anywhere from 6-18 months before bottling.

129

What wind blows through hermitage

La bise

130

Vinification in Hermitage

Some estates ferment their wine in open top, large oak fermenters, others use concrete tanks and stainless steel tanks. A few house use 100% new French oak to age, but most estates use 30% or less new oak barrels. Most wineries age for 18 months or less.

For hermitage Blanc, grapes are fermented most often in casks. Some use stainless steel bats. Malolactic fermentation takes place in these casks or stainless steel vats. Hermitage Blanc is aged on its lees for about 8-12 months in 30%-70% new oak barrels.

131

Cornas vinification

At many estates, fermentation takes place in open top, traditional cement vats. Others prefer stainless steel tanks. Very few domaines use a lot of new French oak barrels to age their wine.

132

Crozes-Hermitage vinification

Fermentation is performed in traditional concrete tanks. Many cooperatives use stainless steel vats. Punch overs and cap punching are common. On average, the majority of producers age their wine in a combination of new and used French oak barrels for 9-12 months.

133

St Joseph vinification

Fermented in stainless steel tanks and aged in varying percentages of new French oak barrels for 12-15 months.

134

What is Vin de paille

A dessert wine made in Hermitage from dried Marsanne and roussanne grapes.