RNA Translation Flashcards Preview

Biochemistry Disease States > RNA Translation > Flashcards

Flashcards in RNA Translation Deck (18):
1

Frameshift mutation

insertion or deletion. alters ORF

2

Silent mutation

point mutation. no effect. (more common in 3rd pos)
degenerate flexibility in 3rd position. Wobble hypothesis

3

Missense mutation

point mutation changes (more common in 1st,2nd pos). changes single codon. NOT frameshift (insertion/deletion).

4

Nonsense mutation

stop codon (UAA, UAG, UGA)

5

Leukoencephalopathy (w/ CNS Hypomyelination and Vanishing White Matter (VWM)

missense mutation in eIF2 (mediates formation of Ternary preinitiation complex), which prevents misfolding my preventing translation during fever. eIF2 less effective in stalling translation during fever-->misfolding-->glial death-->myelin sheath loss
loss of myelin sheath. neuro: speech, manual dexierity. common cause=fever. also severe head trauma. severity inversely correlated with age.

6

TetrAcycline

bacterial antibiotic. inhibits binding to A

7

Choramphenicol

bacterial antibiotic. inhibits Peptide bond formation

8

Erythromycin

bacterial antibiotic. inhibits translocation to E

9

Streptomycin

bacterial antibiotic. blocks transition from A to P

10

Rifamycin

bacterial antibiotic. inhibits RNA Pol binding

11

Alzheimer's

misfolding APP (Amyloid Precursor Protein). a helix-->beta sheet misfolding.
B-amyloid plaques extracellular. intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. neuronal death.
ApoE4 increased risk. ApoE2 protective.

12

Type II Diabetes

misfolding Amylin/Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (IAPP). NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH AMYLOID in Alzheimer's. pancreatic B islet cell death. insulin def.

13

Prion diseases

protein misfolding of prion proteins. amyloid-like proteins.

14

Huntington's

misfolding Huntingtin (HTT) protein into mutant mHTT.
CAG repeats, polyQ residues.
amyloid dep interferes w/ neurotransmitter release. neuronal death.

15

Parkinson's

misfolding a-synuclein. aggregates LEWY bodies. dopaminergic neuron death. decrease DOPAMINE (vs increased dopamine in Schizo).

16

ALS: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis / Lou Gehrig's

misfolded SOD superoxide dismutase aggregates. motor neurons. also other mechanisms

17

Spinal Cerebellar Ataxia

misfolded Ataxin protein.
CAG repeats, polyQ residues.
also nonPoly q mechanisms

18

Ricin

beans. castor beans. B chain. rRNA degradation. translation inhibited.