Rocks Flashcards Preview

Geology > Rocks > Flashcards

Flashcards in Rocks Deck (44):
1

Igneous

Igneous rocks are rocks that form from being thrown out by a volcano

2

Magma

Magma is a liquid that is underground

3

Lava

Lava is magma that is above ground after a volcano has erupted

4

Extrusive

Lava that erupted out of a volcano

5

inclusive

Lava that is inside a volcano

6

Mineral

minerals are rocks broken down

7

lithosphere

Lithosphere is the crust of the earth

8

Asthenosphere

The upper area of the earths mantle

9

Crystal

solid substance that is pressuerised carbon

10

sedimentary rocks

rocks formed from sediments deposited by water, wind or ice. The sediments are cemented together in layers, under pressure.

11

Erosion

the wearing away and removal of soil and rock by natural elements, such as wind, waves, rivers and ice, and by human activity

12

Flood plains

flat, open land beside a river where sediments are deposited during floods

13

Glaciers

large bodies of ice that move down slopes and push boulders, rocks and gravel in front of them

14

Moraines

deposit left by movement of a glacier

15

Sandstone

a sedimentary rock with medium-sized grains. The sand grains are cemented together by silica, lime or other salts.

16

Mudstone

a fine-grained, sedimentary rock without layering

17

shale

a fine-grained sedimentary rock formed in layers by the consolidation of clay

18

siltstone

a sedimentary rock with a particle size between that of sandstone and mudstone

19

Conglomerate

sedimentary rock containing large particles of various sizes cemented together

20

limestone

a sedimentary rock formed from the remains of sea organisms. It consists mainly of calcium carbonate.

21

Coal

a sedimentary rock formed from dead plants and animals that were buried before rotting completely

22

Rock salt

a sedimentary deposit formed when a salt lake or seabed dried up. Its main chemical is sodium chloride.

23

Metamorphic Rocks

is rocks that are under lots of heat and pressure therefore physically changing

24

Metamorphisim

composition of rocks

25

Minerals

rocks mined to obtain a metal or other chemical within them

26

ores

rocks mined to obtain a metal or other chemical within them

27

mining

extraction of natural resources from the Earth

28

EIS

environmental impact statement (EIS): study of the possible effects of a planned project on the environment

29

rehabilitated

restored to its previous condition

30

overburden

waste rock removed from below the topsoil. This rock is replaced when the area is restored.

31

opencut

mining that scours out soil and rocks on the surface of the land

32

underground mining

mining that uses shafts and tunnels to remove rock from deep below the surface

33

stone age

The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.

34

alloy

a metal made by combining two or more metallic elements

35

flint

a hard grey rock consisting of nearly pure silica

36

percussion flaking

a method of forming a flint tool by striking flakes from a stone core with another stone or a piece of bone or wood.

37

fossil

any remains, impression, or trace of an animal or plant of a former geological age; evidence of life in the past

38

folding

the buckling of rocks. It is caused when rocks are under pressure from both sides.

39

palentologist

a scientist who studies fossils

40

relative age

the age of a rock compared with the age of another rock

41

carnivore

animal that eats other animals

42

scavengers

animals that eat dead plant and animal material

43

trace fossils

fossils that provide evidence, such as footprints, that an organism was present when the rock was formed

44

extinct

describes volcanoes that are no longer active. Extinct volcanoes have not erupted for thousands of years and show no sign of future eruption.