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Flashcards in Romanticism and Poetry Deck (55):

He could be vague as to period (his poetry has Elizabethan as well as fifteenth-century features); but so keen was his enthusiasm, and so great his ability to evoke historical distance, that he did much to intensify the mood of medieval romance. Who is this?

Thomas Chatterton (1752-70)


Name two scholarly folklorists (still working largely from written sources) who were collecting and popularizing antiquities in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Bishop Thomas Percy (Reliques of Ancient English Poetry, 1765) and Sir Walter Scott (Border Minstrelsy, 1802-3)


The ballad had received approval of the Augustans long before Romanticism, thanks to



What was Walter Scott's folklore collection and when was it published?

Border Minstrelsy, 1802-3


What did Bishop Thomas Percy collect?

Folklore (Reliques of Ancient English Poetry, 1765)


Robert Burns confessed himself to be not really an untutored ploughman--that was

"a part of the machinery . . . of his poetical character."


Burns's poems were not originary; he acknowledged a debt to

Robert Fergusson (1750-74)


Nature for Pope was a composition of balanced opposites, much like a painting. And in The Landscape (1794), Richard Payne could still speak of joining landscape's "various parts in harmony...With art clandestine, and concealed design." But in The Seasons (1726-30) the Scottish poet James Thomson looks at nature in a very different way:

with the informed eye of the scientific enthusiast


Richard Payne wrote of joining landscape's "various parts in harmony...With art clandestine, and concealed design" (The Landscape, 1794). What other Augustan writer takes this painterly view of nature?



When is James Thomson's The Seasons published?



James Thomson's descriptions of nature are never merely literal, but always expressive of

scientific or philosophical ideas (e.g. refraction)


"...the inchanting and amazing crystal fountain, which incessantly threw up, from dark, rocky caverns below, tons of water every minute, forming a bason, capacious enough for large shallops to ride in, and a creek of four or five feet depth of water, and near twenty yards over, which meanders six miles through green meadows, pouring its limpid waters into the great Lake George, where they seem to remain pure and unmixed." What work is this and what work borrows from it?

Travels (1791) by American quaker William Bartram; Coleridge's Kubla Khan


Coleridge's Kubla Khan draws on imagery from what two works, at least?

Milton's PL; American quaker William Bartram's Travels (1791; London 1792)


British theorizing about the experience of the sublime begins before Burke. It goes all the way back to ________, who took it from the ancient rhetorician ________

Shaftesbury; Longinus


British theorizing about the sublime went back to Shaftesbury (who took it from ancient rhetorician Longinus); but it received its first full development from

Edmund Burke (1729-97)


Terror, darkness, solitude, and the infinite, when felt in safety, give delight. This theorizing by ______ constituted the very element of __________ excluded from the neo-classical ideal of beauty.

Burke; irrationality


The neo-classical ideal of beauty had been based on _______ proportions; but the sublime belongs to an altogether different, non-______ scale.

human; human


Beattie's enthusiastic narrator in The Minstrel says:
"And oft the craggy cliff he loved to climb, / When all in mist the world below was lost. What dreadful pleasure! there to stand sublime, / Like shipwrecked mariner on desert coast" and see the mountains rising through the mist. What aesthetic principle is evoked, and what subsequent literary episode draws on these images?

the sublime; The Prelude, climbing Helvellyn


George ______ (1754-1832) flouted convention by choosing sordidly realistic subjects. He wrote a kind of ____-________, substituting weeds for the customary flowers, laborious misery for the expected idyll.

Crabbe; anti-pastoral


Some readers have tried to say WW's diction is not low as he pretends it is in the Preface. Respond.

In reality the diction is fairly low; although the poems are not unfurnished with poetical ornaments like inversion and rhyme.


WW spoke of a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" but revised his work extensively. But the contradiction is only apparent: "spontaneous" has changed in meaning, and what he meant was

"voluntary overflow." ("Arising or proceeding from natural impulse, without any external...constraint; voluntary and of one's own accord" -OED)


*The perspective or dialectic leaps in "This Lime Tree Bower" are ______; in "Frost at Midnight" they are ______

spatial; temporal


Coleridge's conversation poems express trains of thought: not whole streams of consciousness, but the more active operations of a: ("")

"self-watching, subtilizing mind."


Coleridge's conversation poems trace the movements of the "self-watching, subtilizing mind," proceeding partly by steps of reason or association, partly by ________ _____

imaginative leaps


Coleridge's conversation poems trace the movements of the "self-watching, subtilizing mind," proceeding partly by steps of _____ or ________, partly by imaginative leaps.

reason; association


Coleridge's conversation poems succeed in conveying the mobile life of

the mind


Coleridge's main contribution to poetic genre was the

conversation poem


Coleridge's conversation poems ("The Aeolian Harp," "Dejection," etc.) are, in effect,

interior monologues (a natural form, perhaps, for Coleridge the exterior monologuist and notebook writer)


In "Frost at Midnight," Coleridge, as he often does, introduces a correlate of

poetic thought (here the film fluttering near the low fire)


In "Frost at Midnight," the correlates of subjectivity are discovered in the course of meditation, rather than being

intellectually antecedent


In "Frost at Midnight," the correlates of subjectivity are discovered in .....[?]..... rather than being intellectually antecedent

the course of meditation


In "Frost at Midnight" the starting point for speculative thought, or centre, is within

the poet's own personality (an "egoistic" location that Coleridge boldly defended)


STC's Biographia is analogous to WW's

Prelude (the growth of the poet's mind--in this case the philosopher's and literary critic's)


Blake was innovative but didn't always reject the poetic innovations of the time. Songs of Innocence (1789) are pastoral poems within the tradition of

Isaac Watts's Divine Songs for Children (1715)


The Songs of Experience are written what year

1794 (~5 years after Innocence)


Blake's metaphors are anti-conceptual, even if they seem at first to be familiar enough. Example?

"The Sick Rose"; the image of the rose seems familiar but the metaphor is exceedingly difficult to pin down


The "Proverbs of Hell" in The Marriage are in effect

epigrams (a form Blake always used with strange power)


In Prometheus Unbound, Demogorgon (an obscure deity of chaotic potentiality in Spenser) becomes a central figure standing for something like

historical necessity


The urn in "Ode on a Grecian Urn" (1819) has to do with the conducing of purely natural things to a

sacred conclusion.


In Keats's "Urn," the urn may be said to consecrate



In Keats's "Urn," the urn may be said to _______ nature



Keats had to hold, fix, preserve the instant in unspoilt perfection, as if movement or development would lose all to mutability. His mysticism of frozen moments was to have authority for

Tennyson and the pre-Raphaelites


Keats. Grand personality is achieved in Hyperion at the cost of lifelessness; and in The Fall of Hyperion, the poet

has to reappear


Keats's poetry, often verbal rather than nominal, suggest a ___________ or ________ model

Shakespearean; Miltonic


Capacity to reach into "selfless sympathy" without impatiently reaching after certainty of meaning

negative capability


"The unfettered clouds and region of the Heavens, / Tumult and peace, the darkness and the light-- / Were all like workings of one mind, the features / Of the same face, blossoms upon one tree; / Characters of the great Apocalpyse." Name and analyze

The Prelude. Unchanging landscape features are internalized, becoming images of enduring peace that transcend or assimilate the tumult. Before the analogy emerges as explicit statement (of a sort the later Romantics will avoid) it has been fully explored in anthropomorphisms.


Talk about personification in Keats's "To Autumn" (1819), the last of his major odes.

A good example of the imagination's interaction with nature. Here the personification is not principally traditional, however closely Keats has studies visual representations of autumn in the mirror of art. It is a spirit raised from elusive intimations of the moment of the season.


Ruskin could see the beauty of such "fallacious" passages. But it may be doubted that any fallacy was involved. Far from intending "true" description of physical nature...

Romantics were bent on exploring their own internal states.


Keats was the first to carve out a _______ _______ __ ___, albeit a socially conscious one

separate kingdom of art


As Auden traces in The Enchafed Flood, the sea had anciently symbolized

passion and disorder, potentiality and chaos


As Auden traces in The Enchafed Flood, the sea had anciently symbolized passion and disorder, potentiality and chaos: the ship of state ventured on it only in time of crisis. How did the Romantics view it?

Very differently. They regarded voyaging (and what is more, voyaging to unknown destinations) as the normal condition of man, his search for identity.


"Where rolled the ocean, thereon was his home..." name work and analyze

Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. Romantics regarded voyaging (and to unknown destinations) aas the normal condition of man, his search for identity.


As Auden traces in The Enchafed Flood, the sea had anciently symbolized passion and disorder, potentiality and chaos: the ship of state ventured on it only in time of crisis. The Romantics viewed it very differently. Name a few examples of the Romantics' interactions with the sea as a necessity for self discovery.

- Childe Harold's Pilgrimage ("Where rolled the ocean, thereon was his home...")
- Rime of the Ancient Mariner
- Melville--spurn the lee shore! Up, up to thy apotheosis!


Describe organic form for the Romantics

Structure deriving from the nature of contents, rather than imposed rationally.


Name the 19th century rallying cry (Baudelaire) behind the Romantic nihilism and satanism movements.

Epaler les bourgeois!