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A&I Neuro > Rood > Flashcards

Flashcards in Rood Deck (39):
1

Contracture:

Fixed posture secondary to shortening or loss of elasticity of ligaments, joint capsule, tendons, and muscles (Preston & Hecht, 1999).

2

Controlled Sensory Stimulation:

Concept that the neural component of tone can be affected by sensory stimuli applied in a specific manner to increase or reduce the electrical charge on interneurons or motor neurons, making them more or less likely fo fire when they receive additional goal-specific stimulation from supraspinal centers.

3

What is the purpose of Facilitating

To make easier.

4

Facilitation:

State of readying neurons to depolarize and propagate an impulse or to make contraction of a muscle or a reflex response more likely.

5

Facilitation techniques:

blood pressure increase.

Controlled sensory stimulation used to increase muscle tone and to produce movement responses.

6

Fight or flight reaction:

Sympathetic autonomic nervous system response to a threat (fear, rage, pain, exposure to cold) that mobilizes the body’s resources for violent action. The Sympathetic reaction redirects blood flow to areas of intense activity, such as muscles and heart, and away from other functions, such as digestion. Among other reactions, the heart rate and blood pressure increase.

7

Flaccidity:

State of lacking tone; the limb feels limp and falls into place when not supported.

8

Inhibit:

To make more difficult.

9

Inhibition:




State of hyperpolarization of neural cell membrane decreasing likelihood of propagating an impulse or to make contraction of a muscle or a reflex response less
likely.

10

Inhibition techniques:

Controlled sensory stimulation used to decrease spasticity.

11

Normalization of tone:

Process of changing excessive tone (hypertonia) or insufficient tone (hypotonia) to a state of normal tone needed for normal motor responses.

12

Spasticity:

State of excessive tone and hyperactive response to stretch. If moderately to severely spastic, the limb feels tight and is difficult to move into position.

13

Rood's hypothesis states Appropriate Sensory
stimulation Facilitation/inhibition does what?

Increases Reactions of specific motor responses

14

Rood's hypothesis states Purposeful muscular responses are a result of

Controlled sensory stimulation + Sequence of positions and activities

15

Muscle tone and motor control do what


Approximation of real life context increases tx effectiveness.

Therapist uses “somatic markers” to select interaction methods.

co-effect each other.

16

what patterns co-effect each other.

Flex & Ext.

17

Movement patterns are created by

Repetition of muscular responses

18

Indentation/goal directed do what

co-effect mvt.

19

What increases tx effectiveness.

Approximation of real life context

20

Why do Therapist uses “somatic markers”

to select interaction methods.

21

What are Rood's treatment goals

To normalize muscle tone.

Development of reflexes to increase voluntary use of muscles.

22

What are the muscle groups

Heavy work and Light work

23

Heavy work muscles

(Stabilizers)
Extensors and abductors
used for postural support

24

Light work

(Mobilizers)
Adductors and flexors
used for skilled movement patterns

25

Except for in feeding and speech muscles what is the order of work muscle activation

The heavy work muscles are activated before the light work muscles

26

Guidelines for Rood treatment

Treatment begins at the developmental level of functioning.

Movement is directed toward a purposeful goal.

Repetition is necessary for the training of muscular responses.

27

Reciprocal Inhibition
(Innervation)

ReflexiveProvides early mobility patterns Protective function
Phasic (quick) Requires contraction of agonist and relaxation of antagonist

28

Cocontraction
(Coinnervation)

Provides stability Provides ability to hold a position or an object
Tonic (static) Requires contraction of the agonist and the antagonist

29

Heavy Work

Mobility superimposed on stability (creeping)

Proximal muscles contract and move
vs.
Distal segment is fixed

30

Skill

Highest level of motor control.
Combination of mobility and stability

To execute a skilled pattern: proximal segment is stabilized while distal segment moves freely

31

Rood’s sequential phases of motor control

Reciprocal Inhibition >Cocontraction> Heavy Work> Skills

32

Motor patterns

Supine Flexion
Roll Over
Prone Extension
Neck Cocontraction

33

Four rules of sensory input

Fast brief stimulus > ^ Large synchronous motor input. (reflex arc is intact)

Fast repetitive sensory input > ^ maintained response. (fast brushing)

Maintained sensory input > ^ maintained response. (gravity)

Slow, rhythmical, repetitive sensory input > ^generalized calming effect. (deep pressure)

34

Inhibition

Purpose: To promote a calming, relaxing effect

Touch: Slow, deep, and Continual touch

Environment: Quiet with minimal distractions

Therapist: Use of quiet soothing, calm and slow
tone of voice

35

Facilitation

Purpose: To promote alertness and increase stimulation

Touch: Light and quick touch

Environment: Not distracting, Improves awareness

Therapist: Use of increased volume and tone of voice

36

Techniques Inhibition

Neutral warmth
Gentle rocking or shaking
Slow stroking
Slow rolling
Deep tendon pressure
Joint compression (approximation)
Maintain stretch
Rocking in developmental patterns

37

Techniques Facilitation

Light moving touch
Fast brushing
Icing
Heavy joint compression
Stretch:
Intrinsic stretch
Secondary ending stretch
Stretch pressure
Resistance
Tapping
Vibration

38

Precautions

Brushing
Icing
Touching
Vibration
Heat

39

Monitoring the client

Size of pupils
Respiration
Quality of voice
Quality if speech
Changes in skin tone
Muscle jerks