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Flashcards in Russia Deck (29)
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1

Explain why the Bolsheviks were able to take control of russia by the end of 1917.(12)

The reason why the Bolsheviks were able to take control of Russia by the end of 1917 is because of the leadership of Trotsky. Trotsky was a manipulative speaker (orator) and he inspired a number of people to support the Bolsheviks party. He also led the red Guards, which had the weapons that allowed them to walk into the winter palace. Trotsky also organised details of how the Bolsheviks took over, including taking control of key part of the city like bridges. All this meant was that Trotsky had a key role in the Bolsheviks took over because he increased Bolsheviks support successfully organised the revolution.

2

In July 1915, a report by the Russian was minister explained why the Russian army was suffering very heavy causalities.

Checkpoint: What does this source suggest were the problems facing the Russian army?

''the Germans has forced us to retreat by artillery fire alone. our own batteries has to remain silent. as the enemy did not need to use its infantry soldiers, they suffered hardly any causalities, whilst our soldiers were dying by thousands cases of desertions and of our soldiers giving themselves up to the enemy are becoming frequent. it is difficult to aspect selflessness and enthusiasm from men sent into battle without weapons and ordered to take rifles from their dead colleagues.

Checkpoint: the Russian army faced too many causalities as their enemy had to suffer none.
Their soldiers were dying by thousands cases of desertions and of their soldiers giving themselves up, which was becoming more frequent.
Men were sent into battles without weapons.
It was difficult to aspect selflessness and enthusiasm.
Soldiers were ordered to take rifles from their dead colleagues.

3

The movement which has started has flared up without any party preparing for it and without any preliminary discussion of a plan of action. Now everything depends on the behavior of the military units; if they do not join the working class, the movement will quickly subside; but if the troops turn against the government, then nothing can save the country from revolutionary upheaval.

Checkpoint:
Workers are on the rage of despair. The lost of living had trebled; it is impossible to find food; the time spent queuing for hours in front of shops has become unbearable.

4

Reds:
Bolsheviks.
Trotsky-leader-taking political decisions.
Moscow.
Railway Network.
War trains.
Much shorter distances over which to supply their army.
By 1920 it was over five million strong.
On the train there were 250 me including: body-guards, a machine gun unit; Radio and telegraph operators; workmen to repair the tracks; and printing press operators- to spread ideas and encourage support.

Whites:
Supporting Tsar (Tsarists).
They were too farther apart geographically.
Not united.
They were unpopular because they treated peasants badly.
White leaders were in competition with each other.
There were far fewer whites that reds.
They had no common plan for the better of Russia.

5

Why did Lenin carry out each of the following?
1. Land Decree:

It declared that the land belonged to the peasants who farmed it. It gave the freedom to peasants to seize land from their owners estates and the Decree on workers meant that workers could no longer be used by employers.

6

Why did Lenin carry out each of the following?
2.The peace Decree:

It declared that the war with Germany was over; it also made millions of soldiers glad, who no longer wanted to fight

7

3. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk:

It was a massive humiliation for Russia and the Bolsheviks appeared unfaithful. The price of peace seemed too high; only the Bolsheviks who expected world revolution could have reflected upon it. Loyal Russians took up arms against the Bolsheviks because they had betrayed Russia.

8

What was war communism?

War communism was the economic and political system that existed in soviet Russia during the Russian civil war from 1918-1921.
The Bolsheviks took control of factories, mines, banks, workshops and railways.
Workers were forced to work in factories.
Grain was taken from the peasants using force.
Private Trade was not allowed.
Food was shared all out.

9

What was the NEP?

New Economic Policy.

10

What was NEP meant for?

It meant that new businesses can be privately owned.
Grain takeover was destroyed.

11

Explain three reasons why Stalin changed Agriculture.

First is because of political reasons; he wanted to get control over the country side and defeat Bukharin.
Second is because of economic reasons where he would sell crops and gain money in order to feed and get more workers.
Finally it was because ideological reasons that peasants were getting more from the revolution than they were.

12

Who is Bukharin?

Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin was a Bolshevik revolutionary, Soviet Union politician and creative author on revolutionary theory.

13

The difference between Kolkhoz and Sovkhoz:

Kolkhovs- collective farm; run by peasants who share work and profits.
Sovkhoz- a state collective farm; paid by government.

14

What was collectivization?

Small farms were combined into larger state run farms.
Modern collective farms would generate enough food to feed the cities.
In 1927 the price paid to peasants for grain went down. So they started to hoard it away.

15

Study Interpretation 1 and 2 they give different views about the effects of Stalin's rule on Russia. What is the main difference between these views? (4)

The main difference about the views is that Interpretation 1 thinks that the effects of Stalin's rule on Russia were negative, whereas Interpretation 2 thinks that it brought up benefits. Interpretation one describes the problems people had under, e.g living in ''cramped, dirty and dangerous conditions. In contrast, interpretation 2 describes how he made USSR a; modern, industrialized society'' which gave many benefits.

16

Suggest one reason why Interpretation 1 and 2 give different views about the effects of Stalin's role of Russia. (4)

One reason why they have different views is because one is focusing on the people, and the other is focusing on industry. ... (back it up with details from the source).

17

How far do you agree with interpretation 2 about the effects of Stalin's rule on the soviet union in the years 1928-41?

Explain your Answer, using both Interpretations and your own knowledge of the historical context. (16 marks)

18

What was the Marshall Plan?

Plan by US politician George C.
'Marshall' to give money to European countries.

19

What part of Europe does most of the economic aid go to?

West Europe.

20

Name two countries that are not near the other countries and why do you think these countries receive economic aid.

Greece and Turkey because they are fairly close to the Soviet Union.

21

What countries are getting the most economic aid and why?

U.K and France because they have high status-developed countries.

22

What countries in Europe are getting no economic aid at all?

Poland, Romania, Hungary because Stalin blocked them to receive money from them so that they if they did receive money they would start liking the USA MORE.

23

Explain two consequences of Hungarian Uprising (1956).

One Consequence of the Hungarian Uprising was that the Soviet Union kept their control over Hungary. They responded by sending 6,000 tanks and 200,000 troops into Hungary on 6th November 1956. 7000 Troops were killed; 20,000 Hungarians. No help came and a ceasefire was agreed on 10th November 1956. Nagy was removed from power and later Hanged. The Soviet backed Kadar to take up the leadership. They crushed Hungarians. After that Nagy had called for reforms such as Hungary leaving the Warsaw pact.

The second consequence of the Hungarian uprising was that the cold war tension were deepened between the east and the west after Hungary because they only manage very small few reforms. Other eastern countries feared that they would do the same as they did to Hungary (after Khrushchev invaded it). Czechs called off any reforms remembering what Hungary did.

24

Write a narrative account analysing the key events of the Hungarian uprising.

You may the following in your answer:
-the rule of Matyas Rakosi
-the invasion by Soviet Troops.

From 1945 on the Hungarians were under the control of Moscow. All wealth of whatever nature was taken from Hungary by the Russians who showed their power by putting thousands of Russian troops and hundreds of tanks in Hungary. The Hungarian leader, Rakosi, was put in power by Stalin of Russia. When Stalin died in 1953 all people in Eastern Europe were given some hope that they might be free from Soviet (Russian) rule.
In February 1956, the new Russian leader Khrushchev made a bitter attack on the dead Stalin and his policies and in July 1956 in a gesture to the Hungarians, Rakosi was forced to resign. In fact, the Hungarians had expected more but they did not get it. This situation, combined with 1) a bad harvest 2) fuel shortages 3) a cold and wet autumn all created a volatile situation.
On October 23rd 1956, students and workers took to the streets of Budapest (the capital of Hungary ) and issued their Sixteen Points which included personal freedom, more food, the removal of the secret police, the removal of Russian control etc. Poland had already been granted rights in 1956 which had been gained by street protests and displays of rebellion. Hungary followed likewise.
On October 31st, 1956, Nagy broadcast that Hungary would withdraw itself from the Warsaw Pact. This was pushing the Russians too far and Kadar left the government in disgust and established a rival government in eastern Hungary which was supported by Soviet tanks. On November 4th, Soviet tanks went into Budapest to restore order and they acted with immense brutality even killing wounded people. Tanks dragged round bodies through the streets of Budapest as a warning to others who were still protesting.

Hundreds of tanks went into Budapest and probably 30,000 people were killed. To flee the expected Soviet reprisals, probably 200,000 fled to the west leaving all they possessed in Hungary. Nagy was tried and executed and buried in an unmarked grave. By November 14th, order had been restored. Kadar was put in charge. Soviet rule was re-established.

25

So why did Europe and America do nothing except offer moral support and condemn Russia?

1. Because of the geographic location of Hungary, how could you actually help without resorting to war? Both sides in the Cold War were nuclear powers and the risks were too great. Any economic boycott of the Soviet Union would have been pointless as Russia took what it needed from the countries it occupied.
2. The Suez Crisis, which took place at the same time, was considered far more important and of greater relevance to the west than the suffering of the Hungarians. Hence why Britain, France and America concentrated their resources on this crisis.

26

So why did Europe and America do nothing except offer moral support and condemn Russia?

1. Because of the geographic location of Hungary, how could you actually help without resorting to war? Both sides in the Cold War were nuclear powers and the risks were too great. Any economic boycott of the Soviet Union would have been pointless as Russia took what it needed from the countries it occupied.
2. The Suez Crisis, which took place at the same time, was considered far more important and of greater relevance to the west than the suffering of the Hungarians. Hence why Britain, France and America concentrated their resources on this crisis.

27

The building of the Berlin wall, 1961.

-By August 1961 up to 40000 people left east Germany for the west, every single month.
-Walter Ulbricht, east German leader, urged Khrushchev to close the border.
-The barbed wire fence was build around Berlin between East and West, on the night of August 12th 1961.
-Concert walls with guard towers and checkpoints that would be 165 Kilometers long (102 miles) were built.
-It did not just cut Berlin, but the whole of Germany with a permanent barrier.

28

Key features:

-On 17th April 1961, an invasion force of around 1,400 Cuban exiles landed at the 'Bay of Pigs' Cuba.
-The volunteers had little military experience. They received same training from the CIA, but they were no match for the battle-hardened Cuban revolutionary army.
-Castro's government found out about the invasion plans. There were 20.000 soldiers ready and waiting to fight off 1.400 invaders.
-The USA and the exile army wrongly assumed that most Cubans would support them. But many ordinary Cubans felt happy with Castro and did not rush to lend their support.

29

Consequences:

-It was a embarrassing failure for the U.S.
-The Soviet Union was quick to point out that the people of Cuba were happy under the leadership of the pro-communists Castro and had shown little support for the Cuban exiles' attempt to restore the pro-american and corrupt Batista regime.