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Flashcards in Russia AOS1: Key Events Deck (31)
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1
Q

Key Events

Emancipation Edict

A
  • Released 1861
  • Abolished serfdom
  • Established the mir
    • Village Commune
  • Allowed for zemstvos
    • Local Councils
  • EE Worked by way of peasant land payments
2
Q

Key Events

Sergei Witte Industrial Reforms

A
  • 1893-1903
  • Aimed to:
    • Attract foreign capital to invest in Russia
    • Expand railway system to improve trade/export
  • Improved Russia’s economy, brought stability
  • Created terrible working conditions:
    • 60h work days
    • Women and children working underground
    • 6 people per room
3
Q

Key Events

Bloody Sunday

A
  • 7 January 1905
  • Sympathy strikes after Putilov Steel Works sacked 5 men
  • March of 110,000 led by Father Gapon
  • Presented Petition, signed by 135,000
    • Demolish the wall between yourself and the people, and let them govern the country in conjunction with yourself
  • Ended with 200 killed, 800 wounded when soldiers fired on the crowd
4
Q

Key Events

Battle of Tsushima

A
  • May 1905
    • Destroyed Russian navy in 24h after travelling for 6 months
5
Q

Key Events

Mutiny on Potemkin

A
  • July 1905
  • Soldiers mutiny on battleship Potemkin in the Black Sea
6
Q

Key Events

Release of October Manifesto

A
  • 17 October 1905
  • In response to strikes that paralysed Russian economy during October
  • Granted establishment of Duma
  • Grant the population… freedom of conscience, speech, assemblies and associations
  • Nicholas reluctant to release OM: Terrible decision
7
Q

Key Events

Release of Fundamental State Laws

A
  • April 1907
  • ‘No law can come into force without [the Tsar’s] consent’
  • Asserted Tsars autocratic power
  • Allowed for dismissal of 1st and 2nd Dumas
8
Q

Key Events

First and Second Duma

A
  • 1906 and 1907
  • Too radical for Nicholas:
    • Constitution to limit the Tsar’s power
    • Distribution of state, church and private land to the peasants
    • Free education
  • Nicholas dismisses them
9
Q

Key Events

Tsar Changes Electoral Laws

A
  • 1907
  • Changed proportion of votes
    • 230 landowners votes = 125,000 industrial workers votes
  • Allowed a more conservative Duma
10
Q

Key Events

Third and Fourth Duma

A
  • 1907-1917
  • Served their full terms
  • Much more conservative
  • Allowed Kerensky to ‘gain invaluable experience by being exposed to the inner workings of the government’ (Malone)
11
Q

Key Events

Stolypin’s Reforms

A
  • Land Reform:
    • Allowed for purchase of all royal and gov’t land: Peasant Land Bank
    • Credit: Peasants had money to buy more land and equipment
  • Social Reform:
    • Proportional taxation
    • Religious tolerance and freedom of conscience granted
    • Compulsory primary education
  • Industrial Reform:
    • Night and underground labour banned for children, teens, and women
    • Maximum working days shortened
  • Increased Okhrana vigilance - ‘Stolypin’s Necktie’
12
Q

Key Events

Stolypin Assassinated

A
  • October 1911
  • Revolutionary oppressed under Stolypin’s regime
13
Q

Key Events

Increase in Strikes between 1910-1914

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A

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14
Q

Key Events

Lena Goldfields Massacre

A
  • April 1912
  • 200 strikers killed by police
  • Unhappy with working conditions (16h working days)
15
Q

Key Events

Russia Enters WW1

A
  • Russian/German tensions led to Germany’s declaration of War
  • People prayed, shouted joyously, carried flags, and even bowed in reverence when the Tsar made public appearances
  • War led to growing unrest - 4.7 times national expenditure of 1913 was used on war efforts
  • 3 bullets per person per day
16
Q

Key Events

Tsar Nicholas becomes Commander of Army

A
  • August 1915
  • Replaced experienced Nickolai Nickolaevich
  • Alexandra: his decision demonstrated true ‘master, proving yourself the Autocrat without whom Russia cannot exist’
  • Rodzianko: ‘Your adoption of such a decision threatens Russia, yourself, and your dynasty with serious consequences’
  • Literally and figuratively abandoned the people
17
Q

Key Events

Rasputin’s Rise to Power

A
  • His supposed ability to heal Alexi’s haemophilia
  • Exerted considerable influence through Alexandra
  • Responsible for selection of:
    • 4 PM’s
    • 3 Ministers of War
    • 6 Interior Ministers
18
Q

Key Events

Lead-up to February Revolution

A
  • Okhrana: ‘the population is at present in a very troubled mood’
  • Rodzianko: ‘I consider the state of the country to have become more critical and menacing than ever’
  • Buchanan: an ‘abyss… lies ahead of you’
19
Q

Key Events

February Revolution

A
  • 18 Feb-2 Mar 1917
  • Strikes paralysed Petrograd for the days of the revolution
  • Alexandra: ‘hooligan movement… all this will pass… if only the Duma will behave itself’
  • Soldiers join the protesters: 26 Feb 1917
  • Rodzianko: ‘The situation is serious… The capital is in a state of anarchy’
  • Nicholas does nothing
  • Provisional Gov’t formed
  • Petrograd Soviet formed
20
Q

Key Events

Tsar Nicholas Abdicates

A
  • 2 March 1917
  • Provisional Gov’t formally declared
  • Nicholas moves to return to Russia, but is blocked by army
  • Abdicates in favour of his brother - not in favour of Alexi
21
Q

Key Events

Formation of Prov Gov’t

A
  • 27 February 1917
  • Formed from 4th Duma
22
Q

Key Events

Formation of Petrograd Soviet

A
  • 28 February 1917
  • City overwhelmingly belonged to protesters at this point
23
Q

Key Events

Soviet Order No. 1 Released

A
  • 1 March 1917
  • Any military orders given by Prov Gov’t ‘shall be executed only in such cases as they do not conflict with the orders and resolutions of the Soviet’
24
Q

Key Events

Lenin Returns

A
  • Returns from Switzerland, with assistance of Germany who want Russia out of the War
  • Finland station: 3 April 1917
    • Peace, Land, Bread!
    • All Power to the Soviets!
  • Speaks against the Prov Gov’t, calls for Soviets to be in charge
25
Q

Key Events

Lenin Releases April Theses

A
  • 4 April 1917
  • ‘No support for the Prov Gov’t’
  • ‘It must be explained to the masses that the Soviet… [is] the only possible form of the revolutionary gov’t’
26
Q

Key Events

June Offensive

A
  • June 1917
  • Prov Gov’t attempt to increase morale in army
  • Initial success; German nullify euphoria by killing 200,000
  • Massive losses sustained by Russian Army
27
Q

Key Events

July Days

A
  • July 1917
  • Bolshevik public action gone wrong
  • Bols blamed by Prov Gov’t - bad public image for Bols
  • Many Bols put in prison
  • Trotsky joins the Bolsheviks, Lenin flees to Finland
  • Significant victory for Prov Gov’t, but a learning curve for the Bols
28
Q

Key Events

Kornilov Revolt

A
  • August 1917
  • Kornilov approaching Petrograd with his army
  • Kerensky gets worried, gives guns to Soviet to defend
  • Soviet/Bols seen as heroes, Prov Gov’t seen as weak
  • Increase in support for Bols
29
Q

Key Events

October Revolution

A
  • October 1917
  • Strategic takeover of Petrograd - Trotsky in charge of Military Revolutionary Committee organised the coup d’etat
  • Went in through a back door
30
Q

Key Events

Bolsheviks Consolidate Power

A
  • Over a period of 10 days Bolsheviks legitimise their take over
31
Q

Key Events

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A

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