Flashcards in RVT- The Skeletal System Deck (133):
All bones start as 'what' connective tissue?
Cartilage and fibrous materials
The formation of bone from fibrous tissue is known as what?
In the skeletal system, what does cartilage do?
Protects the ends of the bone where they contact each other.
Which type of bone is the hard, dense strong bone?
What is another name for cortical bone?
This type of bone is 'resting' or 'slowed down'....
What type of bone has an ossified matrix?
Where is cortical bone found?
Forms the outer layer of the bone
What bone is lighter and less strong?
What bone is found in the inner portions and in the ends of long bones?
What is another name for cancellous bone?
Is cancellous bone considered young or old?
If bone has yellow marrow is it coming from an old or young bone?
Old / Compact bne
Would red marrow be found in a young or old bone?
Young / Spongy bone
Is an epiphysial plate found in a young or old animal?
Young - Found in long bones
What is the matrix of bone made up of?
Collagen fibers embedded in protein and polysaccharide
What minerals does the bone store?
Where would the endosteum be located?
Inner membrane of the long bone
Where would the periosteum be located?
Lining the outside of the long bone
Bone is one of the hardest tissues in the body...what is harder?
What is endochondral ossification?
Bone cells turning to cartilage
What is intramembraneous ossification?
Formation of bone using fibrous material
What are the 6 basic shapes of bones?
What are some examples of 'long' bones?
What are some examples of 'flat' bones?
What are examples of 'irregular' bones?
Where are splanchnic bones found?
Found in muscles
Os penis ( bone in dogs and cat penises)
Os cordis ( bone in a cow heart)
What does red bone marrow do?
Forms blood cells
What is the primary tissue found in yellow bone marrow?
Adipose connective tissue
What is the most common marrow found in adult animals?
What would happen if the long bones in the body did not have a periosteal lining?
Muscles could not attach to the bone
Growth of the bone would be unregulated
Does the periostial lining cover the entire long bone?
No.. It is not present on articular surfaces
What do 'Haversion' systems do?
Run lengthwise with the bone supplying it with blood, lymph vessels and nerves
What is the name for the very important 'hole' in the bone where blood/lymph vessels and nerves enter the bone? Where can it be found?
Usually located 2/3 distal on long bone
What happens if the nutrient foramen is damaged?
The bone will die
What is the name for the long middle area , also known as the primary area of the long bone?
What is the name for the ends of the long bone? Also considered the 'secondary' areas.
Where is the 'metaphysis' located on the long bone?
Between the epiphysis and diaphysis portions of the bone
A bone whose ossification centers have met would indicate what?
The animal has stopped growing
What is the name for a curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints to provide extra cushioning?
What is a 'complex' joint?
A joint with a meniscus
Name 2 joints that have a meniscus
What is articular cartilage and where is it found?
It is a connective tissue that covers the joint surfaces of the bone ( hyaline)
When we see the word 'chondro' we know it is referring to......
When we see the word 'Arthro' we know it is referring to.....
How are joints classified?
Based on their degree of movement
A joint that is immovable would be called.....
A joint that is slightly moveable would be called.....
A joint that is freely moveable would be called....
What is an example of a synarthroses joint?
The joints between the bones of the skull
What is an example of an amphiarthroses joint?
The joints between vertebrae
What is an example of diathroses?
What is the difference between a haversion canal and a volkmanns canal?
Haversion runs lengthwise
Volkmann run horizontally
What is the name of the fibrous connective tissue that connects bone to bone?
What is the name of the connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone?
Why are injuries to tendons and ligaments slow to heal?
They are not vascular
The skeleton is divided into 2 parts. What are they?
The Axial skeleton
The Appendicular skeleton
What is the function of the axial skeleton?
To protect the major organs of the nervous, respiratory and circulatory systems
How many bones make up the skull?
37 to 38
What are the skull joints called?
What kind of joint connects the mandible to the rest of the skull?
The skull is made up primarily of what 'shape' of bone ( of the 6)
What is the process of making flat bones?
What is the largest bone in the skull?
What is the 'space' called that is present in frontal bone of the skull?
The sinus cavity
What 2 bones of the skull protect the brain?
What is a 'foramen' in a bone?
Hole in the bone ( where a nerve or blood vessel runs through a bone)
What is a ' Fossa' in the bone?
What skull bones house the animals teeth?
What nerve runs through the infraorbital foramen and what does it do?
It innervates the area and can pull the upper lip of the animal up.
What 2 thin, long bones run directly lateral to the median line of the top of the skull and what suture running on the medial line separates them?
Nasal bone separated by the intranasal suture
The eye of the animal is supported by what 2 bones?
What is the zygomatic arch?
The arch that supports the eye of the animal. Made up of zygomatic bone and temporal bone
What is the name of the hole in the mandible that the nerve runs through?
Where is the occipital bone located on the skull?
On the back of the head where it articulates with the neck
Where are the turbinates located?
Inside the nasal cavity
What is the hyoid bone?
A horseshoe shaped bone that sometimes included with the cranial bones. Composed of several portions of bone united by cartilage.
What are the 5 vertebral regions?
How many bones make up the cervical region?
C3, C4, C5, C6, C7
How many bones make up the thoracic region?
How many bones make up the lumbar region of the spine?
How many bones make up the sacral region of the spine?
How many bones make up the caudal region of the spine?
18 + - 2
What 3 areas make up the sternum?
Manubrium ( cranial end)
body ( middle part)
Xiphoid process ( Caudal end)
Which bone has an air filled cavity?
Which bone has a sharp slender process?
What is the narrow ridge of a bone?
What is an arm-like projection of a bone?
What is the rounded, convex projection of a bone?
What is a narrow opening in a the bone?
What is a canal-like structure of the bone?
What is a round or oval opening in the bone?
What is an epicondyle?
Raised area on or above a condyle
What is a projection or prominence of a bone?
Of the 5 bone types, which of the bones has the least amount of spongy bone in it?
What is a growth plate remnant?
What is found in the lacunae in bone?
What is the function of the organic matrix in the bone?
Gives bone flexibility and strength
Name the important organic bone components?
What makes up the bulk of the inorganic material in the bone that gives bone its hardness and compressional strength?
Compare and contrast events occurring on the epiphyseal and diaphysial faces of the epiphyseal plate?
The cartilage cells at the epi side are continuing to grow and divide mitocally, while the cells on the diaphysial side are aging, dying and osteoblasts move into form bone.
Type of cartilage that supports the external ear?
Type of cartilage between the vertebrae?
Type of cartilage that forms the walls of the voice box?
Type of cartilage that forms the epiglottis?
Type of cartilage forming the articular cartilage?
Type of cartilage that forms the meniscus?
Type of cartilage that is the most effective at resisting compression?
The most springy and flexible kind of cartilage?
The most abundant type of cartilage?
What part of the long bone contains spongy bone in adults?
Where in the blood does blood formation occur?
Red bone marrow
What part of the bone contains fat in adult bones?
What is concentric lamellae?
Layers of bony matrix around a central canal
What are 3 important things to know about the 'atlas?'
Transverse processes are enlarged and are wing-like
Has no body
Spinous process not present
Lateral foramen present ( only vertebrae with this feature)
Which foramen is closer to the cranial aspect of the C1 vertebrae?
Lateral vertebral foramen. Close to Alar notch
Which is the cranial aspect of the atlas?
The end where the Alar notches are
What is the thinnest area of the vertebral bone?
In all vertebrae what is the big hole that the spinal cord runs through called?
Which cervical vertebrae has an elongated spinus process?
Axis ( C2)
What foramen is only found in C1-C6?
What vertebrae is associated with the 'yes' movement of the head?
Which vertebrae is associated with the 'no' movement of the head?
Which of the cervical vertebrae does not have a transverse foramen?
What is the name of the hole going into the ear?
Give 2 radiographic 'markers' found in the cervical vertebrae?
C2 - long spinous process
C6 - large transverse process
In Which vertebrae would you find the 'dens?'
C2 - Axis
What 2 features does the occipital bone have?
2 big condyles
Magnum foramen connects to first vertebrae
Most caudal bone of the skull
What foramen runs through the maxilla bone?
Infraorbital foramen which the infraorbital artery runs through.
What are 2 important features about the turbinates?
They are covered in cilia
They have a very rich blood supply ( to warm the air before it gets to your lungs)
What does the hyoid bone do?
Holds the tongue and larynx in place
How do you classify the 2 parts of the mandible?