RVT- The Skeletal System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in RVT- The Skeletal System Deck (133):
1

All bones start as 'what' connective tissue?

Cartilage and fibrous materials

2

The formation of bone from fibrous tissue is known as what?

Ossification

3

In the skeletal system, what does cartilage do?

Protects the ends of the bone where they contact each other.

4

Which type of bone is the hard, dense strong bone?

Cortical bone

5

What is another name for cortical bone?

Compact bone

6

This type of bone is 'resting' or 'slowed down'....

Cortical bone

7

What type of bone has an ossified matrix?

Cortical bone

8

Where is cortical bone found?

Forms the outer layer of the bone

9

What bone is lighter and less strong?

Cancellous bone

10

What bone is found in the inner portions and in the ends of long bones?

Cancellous

11

What is another name for cancellous bone?

Spongy bone

12

Is cancellous bone considered young or old?

Young

13

If bone has yellow marrow is it coming from an old or young bone?

Old / Compact bne

14

Would red marrow be found in a young or old bone?

Young / Spongy bone

15

Is an epiphysial plate found in a young or old animal?

Young - Found in long bones

16

What is the matrix of bone made up of?

Collagen fibers embedded in protein and polysaccharide

17

What minerals does the bone store?
( Primary)

Calcium
Phosphorus

18

Where would the endosteum be located?

Inner membrane of the long bone

19

Where would the periosteum be located?

Lining the outside of the long bone

20

Bone is one of the hardest tissues in the body...what is harder?

Teeth

21

What is endochondral ossification?

Bone cells turning to cartilage

22

What is intramembraneous ossification?

Formation of bone using fibrous material

23

What are the 6 basic shapes of bones?

Long
Short
Flat
Irregular
Sesimoid
Splanchnic

24

What are some examples of 'long' bones?

Femur
Humerus
Tibia
Radius

25

What are some examples of 'flat' bones?

Skull
Scapula

26

What are examples of 'irregular' bones?

Vertibrae

27

Where are splanchnic bones found?

Found in muscles
Os penis ( bone in dogs and cat penises)
Os cordis ( bone in a cow heart)

28

What does red bone marrow do?

Forms blood cells

29

What is the primary tissue found in yellow bone marrow?

Adipose connective tissue

30

What is the most common marrow found in adult animals?

Yellow marrow

31

What would happen if the long bones in the body did not have a periosteal lining?

Muscles could not attach to the bone
Growth of the bone would be unregulated

32

Does the periostial lining cover the entire long bone?

No.. It is not present on articular surfaces

33

What do 'Haversion' systems do?

Run lengthwise with the bone supplying it with blood, lymph vessels and nerves

34

What is the name for the very important 'hole' in the bone where blood/lymph vessels and nerves enter the bone? Where can it be found?

Usually located 2/3 distal on long bone
Nutrient Foramen

35

What happens if the nutrient foramen is damaged?

The bone will die

36

What is the name for the long middle area , also known as the primary area of the long bone?

Diaphysis

37

What is the name for the ends of the long bone? Also considered the 'secondary' areas.

Epiphysis

38

Where is the 'metaphysis' located on the long bone?

Between the epiphysis and diaphysis portions of the bone

39

A bone whose ossification centers have met would indicate what?

The animal has stopped growing

40

What is the name for a curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints to provide extra cushioning?

Meniscus

41

What is a 'complex' joint?

A joint with a meniscus

42

Name 2 joints that have a meniscus

Knee
TMJ

43

What is articular cartilage and where is it found?

It is a connective tissue that covers the joint surfaces of the bone ( hyaline)

44

When we see the word 'chondro' we know it is referring to......

cartilage

45

When we see the word 'Arthro' we know it is referring to.....

Joints

46

How are joints classified?

Based on their degree of movement

47

A joint that is immovable would be called.....

Synarthroses joint

48

A joint that is slightly moveable would be called.....

Amphiarthroses

49

A joint that is freely moveable would be called....

Diathrosis

50

What is an example of a synarthroses joint?

The joints between the bones of the skull

51

What is an example of an amphiarthroses joint?

The joints between vertebrae

52

What is an example of diathroses?

Synovial joint

53

What is the difference between a haversion canal and a volkmanns canal?

Haversion runs lengthwise
Volkmann run horizontally

54

What is the name of the fibrous connective tissue that connects bone to bone?

Ligament

55

What is the name of the connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone?

Tendon

56

Why are injuries to tendons and ligaments slow to heal?

They are not vascular

57

The skeleton is divided into 2 parts. What are they?

The Axial skeleton
The Appendicular skeleton

58

What is the function of the axial skeleton?

To protect the major organs of the nervous, respiratory and circulatory systems

59

How many bones make up the skull?

37 to 38

60

What are the skull joints called?

Sutures

61

What kind of joint connects the mandible to the rest of the skull?

Synovial joint

62

The skull is made up primarily of what 'shape' of bone ( of the 6)

Flat bones

63

What is the process of making flat bones?

Intramembranous ossification

64

What is the largest bone in the skull?

Maxilla

65

What is the 'space' called that is present in frontal bone of the skull?

The sinus cavity

66

What 2 bones of the skull protect the brain?

Maxilla bone
Frontal bone

67

What is a 'foramen' in a bone?

Hole in the bone ( where a nerve or blood vessel runs through a bone)

68

What is a ' Fossa' in the bone?

A depression

69

What skull bones house the animals teeth?

Incisive bones
Maxilla bones

70

What nerve runs through the infraorbital foramen and what does it do?

It innervates the area and can pull the upper lip of the animal up.

71

What 2 thin, long bones run directly lateral to the median line of the top of the skull and what suture running on the medial line separates them?

Nasal bone separated by the intranasal suture

72

The eye of the animal is supported by what 2 bones?

Zygomatic bone
Temporal bone

73

What is the zygomatic arch?

The arch that supports the eye of the animal. Made up of zygomatic bone and temporal bone

74

What is the name of the hole in the mandible that the nerve runs through?

Mental foramen

75

Where is the occipital bone located on the skull?

On the back of the head where it articulates with the neck

76

Where are the turbinates located?

Inside the nasal cavity

77

What is the hyoid bone?

A horseshoe shaped bone that sometimes included with the cranial bones. Composed of several portions of bone united by cartilage.

78

What are the 5 vertebral regions?

Cervical
thoracic
Lumbar
Sacral
Caudal

79

How many bones make up the cervical region?

7 bones
atlas C1
axis C2
C3, C4, C5, C6, C7

80

How many bones make up the thoracic region?

14

81

How many bones make up the lumbar region of the spine?

7

82

How many bones make up the sacral region of the spine?

3

83

How many bones make up the caudal region of the spine?

18 + - 2

84

What 3 areas make up the sternum?

Manubrium ( cranial end)
body ( middle part)
Xiphoid process ( Caudal end)

85

Which bone has an air filled cavity?

Sinus

86

Which bone has a sharp slender process?

Spine

87

What is the narrow ridge of a bone?

Crest

88

What is an arm-like projection of a bone?

Ramus

89

What is the rounded, convex projection of a bone?

Condyle

90

What is a narrow opening in a the bone?

Fissure

91

What is a canal-like structure of the bone?

Meatus

92

What is a round or oval opening in the bone?

Foramen

93

What is an epicondyle?

Raised area on or above a condyle

94

What is a projection or prominence of a bone?

Process

95

Of the 5 bone types, which of the bones has the least amount of spongy bone in it?

Long bones

96

What is a growth plate remnant?

Epiphyseal line

97

What is found in the lacunae in bone?

Osteocytes

98

What is the function of the organic matrix in the bone?

Gives bone flexibility and strength

99

Name the important organic bone components?

Collagen fibers
Osteocytes

100

What makes up the bulk of the inorganic material in the bone that gives bone its hardness and compressional strength?

Calcium salts

101

Compare and contrast events occurring on the epiphyseal and diaphysial faces of the epiphyseal plate?

The cartilage cells at the epi side are continuing to grow and divide mitocally, while the cells on the diaphysial side are aging, dying and osteoblasts move into form bone.

102

Type of cartilage that supports the external ear?

Elastic cartilage

103

Type of cartilage between the vertebrae?

Fibrocartilage

104

Type of cartilage that forms the walls of the voice box?

Hyaline

105

Type of cartilage that forms the epiglottis?

Elastic cartilage

106

Type of cartilage forming the articular cartilage?

Hyaline

107

Type of cartilage that forms the meniscus?

Fibrocartilage

108

Type of cartilage that is the most effective at resisting compression?

Fibrocartilage

109

The most springy and flexible kind of cartilage?

Elastic

110

The most abundant type of cartilage?

Hyaline

111

What part of the long bone contains spongy bone in adults?

Epiphysis

112

Where in the blood does blood formation occur?

Red bone marrow

113

What part of the bone contains fat in adult bones?

Medullary cavity

114

What is concentric lamellae?

Layers of bony matrix around a central canal

115

What are 3 important things to know about the 'atlas?'

Transverse processes are enlarged and are wing-like
Has no body
Spinous process not present
Lateral foramen present ( only vertebrae with this feature)

116

Which foramen is closer to the cranial aspect of the C1 vertebrae?

Lateral vertebral foramen. Close to Alar notch

117

Which is the cranial aspect of the atlas?

The end where the Alar notches are

118

What is the thinnest area of the vertebral bone?

Lamina

119

In all vertebrae what is the big hole that the spinal cord runs through called?

Vertebral foramen

120

Which cervical vertebrae has an elongated spinus process?

Axis ( C2)

121

What foramen is only found in C1-C6?

Transverse foramen

122

What vertebrae is associated with the 'yes' movement of the head?

Atlantoccipital joint

123

Which vertebrae is associated with the 'no' movement of the head?

Atlantoaxial joint

124

Which of the cervical vertebrae does not have a transverse foramen?

C7

125

What is the name of the hole going into the ear?

Auditory meatus

126

Give 2 radiographic 'markers' found in the cervical vertebrae?

C2 - long spinous process
C6 - large transverse process

127

In Which vertebrae would you find the 'dens?'

C2 - Axis

128

What 2 features does the occipital bone have?

Occipital crest
2 big condyles
Magnum foramen connects to first vertebrae
Most caudal bone of the skull

129

What foramen runs through the maxilla bone?

Infraorbital foramen which the infraorbital artery runs through.

130

What are 2 important features about the turbinates?

They are covered in cilia
They have a very rich blood supply ( to warm the air before it gets to your lungs)

131

What does the hyoid bone do?

Holds the tongue and larynx in place

132

How do you classify the 2 parts of the mandible?

Body
Ramus

133

Articular joints have 3 possible surfaces...

Condyle ( pulley system shaped)
Head - rounded
Facet - flat