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Flashcards in Sacred Page Study Deck (25)
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1

Why do we study arguments

- To glorify God
- To become more effective people

2

What is an argument

A basic unit of reasoning that contains a premise and conclusion in at least 2 separate statements.

3

How do we identify arguments

DIE

Develop sensitivity
Indicator words and phrases
Expand our knowledge

4

Argument vs Assertion vs Explanation

Assertion: Single claim or statement

Explanation: Why rather than That

5

Three Types of Deductive Arguments

Categorical Syllogism
Disjunctive Syllogism
Hypothetical Syllogism

6

Categorical Syllogism

2 Premises, 1 Conclusion that are categorical propositions

7

Disjunctive Syllogism

"either / or" statements

8

Valid Disjunctive Syllogism

Denying a Disjunct

9

Invalid Disjunctive Syllogism

Affirming a Disjunct

10

Hypothetical Syllogism Types

Pure

Mixed

11

Pure Hypothetical Syllogism

If p, then q
p
therefore q

12

Mixed Valid Hypothetical Syllogism

Affirming the Antecedent
Denying the Consequent

13

Mixed Invalid Hypothetical Syllogism

DAAC

Denying the Antecedent
Affirming the Consequent

14

Types of Non-Deductive Arguments

Inductive Generalizations
Argument by Analogy
Abductive Argument

15

Inductive Generalization

Categorical Generalization
Statistical Generalization

16

Argument by Analogy

"Country X is like Country Y, therefore, Country X will have the same outcome"

17

Abductive Argument

"Inference to the best explanation"

18

How do we evaluate Deductive Arguments

Factual Strength
Logica Strength

19

Evaluating Deductive Arguments

- Are they valid / invalid
- If the premise is true, the conclusion must be true

20

Subjectivism Fallacy

I believe it to be true, therefore It must be

21

Appeal to Majority Fallacy

Everyone's doing it, so should you

22

Evaluating Argument by Analogy

ONE COUNTER is a PLAUSIBLE DIFFERENCE

One sample (not large or varied
Look for counter-analogies
Plausibility in the light of background knowledge
Are the differences enough to discount the link

23

Evaluating Abductive Arguments

KISS, KNOW, DISCOVER, ADAPT

The conclusion is simpler than its rivals / contains less fallacies
Coheres well with relevant knowledge
Leads to new discoveries
Helps predict future events

24

Evaluating Inductive Generalizations

ABUNDANT INSTANCES are PLAUSIBLE

Sample is sufficiently large and varied
Look for confirming / disconfirming instances
Plausibility in light of additional knowledge

25

What is a conclusion premise?

A multi-level or multi-step argument containing at least on statement that functions as both a premise and a conclusion