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Flashcards in Samenvatting Marieke Deck (129):
1

Early history (3)

- Pre-Columbian period <1492
- early colonial period (1492-1600) => Colombusday October 8th
- colonial period (1607-1776)

2

First English settlement

Jamestown (Virginia) 1607

3

Puritans (def)

purify the Church from within to get rid of bling (Catholic rites)

4

Pilgrims (6)

- seperatists (Church of England too corrupt) = persecuted in England=> Leyden 1608 = too liberal => Mayflower Cape Cod Massachusetts
- own society based on religion without government interference =>
- Plymouth Colony =
- harsh conditions =
- rescue Wampanoag = teaching fishing, farming + surviving =>
- Thanksgiving dinner October 1621

5

Puritan myth (puritan thinking) (3)

- American Dream (work hard = receive rewards)
- land of opportunity = new Paradise
- people elected by God (City upon a hill sermon), mission of a chosen nation create a new Zion (as He once had chosen the Jews)

6

Puritan way of living (9)

- religion is personal
- Bible = relationship with God (instead of rules set by a church) =>
* people are educated & literate
- liberation; set your own rules & values (work, sex, morality) => individualism (think + act for your own)
- Ordinary middle-class people
- strict religious life
- frugality + work ethic (= calling from God) => not working = sin
- succes = salvation / poverty = suspect
- intellectual group= book press + founding Harvard University
- life on earth is prelude => reward's Heaven (don't lose sight of the grave)

7

social Darwinism

survival of the fittes according to (puritan) social standards

8

to become Puritan (3)

- know the Bible inside out
- exemplary citizen
- convince congregation of having had contact with God (speaking in tongues/having vision)

9

Salem Witch Trials (4)

- winter 1692-1693
- mass hysteria in isolated world (snowed in)
- 19 people died/hanged
- belief= devil walks among us + tries to lure you to the wrong side

10

Native Americans + problems for the settlers (3)

- diversity of NA
- lack of cultural relativism
- opposite cultures NA

11

Native American diversity (3)

- great number of tribes
- each tribe new treaty negotiated
- communication difficult = large number of languages

12

cultural believes of a Puritan towards NA (3)

(or lack of...)
- European sense of superiority
- Natives seen as nobel savages' => forced to adopt English culture, traditions + religion (ought to be grateful)
- Christianise Native Americans

13

Differences cultures NA vs Puritans (5)

- Natives focus on nature+ everything connected by spirit / English = God + bible
- Natives believe land is for shared use / English owning it
- Natives = oral culture vs written culture English
- Natives work ethic is only necessary = lazy to the English
- Natives = stubborn; proposals not accepted = consensus based community

14

Native American Genocide? (3)

- controversial views
- Natives = seen as nuisances + obstructing natural growth nation
- US government pursued removal => forced to move to area west of Mississippi river = trail of tears

15

trail of tears (5)

- series of forced removals of Native Americans
- from SE US to west of Mississippi River = designated Indian Territory by the English.
- According to Indian Removal Act 1830.
- Relocated people suffered exposure, disease, starvation.
- En route more that 4,000 died.

16

General George Custer (4)

- American calvary commander
- led his men to their death at Battle of Little Bighorn 1876
- against Lakota + Cheyenne
- Advanced too quickly => surrounded by Indians => slaughtered

17

Battle of Little Bighorn (3)

- Lakota + Cheyenne against Whites 1876
= Sitting Bull + Crazy Horse / General George Custer
=> greatest Indian victory

18

Link Civil war - Indian Wars (5)

Indian Wars were a result of the Civil War.
- expansionism American empire in the West
- era of reconstruction
- many American soldiers (Union + Confederacy) redeployed to the frontier
- project of demilitarization
- accelerated conquest + colonialization of the West

19

Native Americans - US relations 1865-1890 (4)

Pattern:
- NA lands were claimed by white settlers
- Conflict ensued, leading to war
- Treaties were made + violated again
- war again

20

Indian policy 1870s-1934 (3)

Force NA to assimilate; 3 ways:
1. ending tribal authority + cohesion;
2. Education; ending Indian culture
3. Allotment policy; ending communal foundations

21

Deletion/Ending of tribal authority + cohesion (3)

- tribal sovereignty legally ended
- reservations subject to federal + state laws
- Indians given US citizenship => individual rights instead of communal rights

22

Education NA 1880-1890 (3)

- NA children forcibly removed + placed in boarding schools
- forbidden to: speak NA language, wear NA clothes, practice NA customs
- Curriculum (white) US history

23

Allotment policy (Def + 3)

Followed Dawes Act 1887 = US president able to divide tribal land into allotments for individual Indians = US citizenship + separation from tribe. "Surplus" land = sold to non-natives.
=> stimulate economic self-reliance
=> reduce tribal communalism
=> 1.6m hectares sold to whites

24

Indian New Deal (3)

- 1934 Franklin D Roosevelt = reversing earlier policies
- Indian Reorganization Act
- Biculturalism promoted

25

biculturalism US installed(4)

- surplus land returned to tribes
- communal industries on reservation promoted (industries/farming/cattle)
- tribal government
- bilingual and cultural schools

26

1950-1975 New Deal reversed (2)

=> reversing Indian New Deal
=> reverse assimilation (dividing + individualism)

27

Indian Self Determination Act 1975

reastablished tribal authority
=> 326 reservations = 567 tribes

28

social problems NA (4)

- extreme poverty rates
- high unemployment rates
- low educational attainment
- health issues (addiction to alcoholic drinks)

=> gambling revenue (allowed on reservations) help combat these problems

29

NA reservations

= 326
- NA autonomy (right to govern) => preserve their culture

30

French - Indian Wars (1756-1763) (5)

- part of 7yr war
- imperial struggle between France / England
- cause: French expantion to Ohio River Valley
- NA support French
- 1763: Treaty of Paris= Britain receive Canada from French + California from Spain => Expansion westwards to Mississippi by the British

31

1763: Treaty of Paris

Britain receive Canada from French + California from Spain => Expansion westwards to Mississippi by the British.

32

Events that led to War of Independence 1775 (3)

- Wars against France cost lot of money => Britain tax Americans => they refuse to pay 'no taxation without representation in Parliament'
- colonists wat to expand westward = not allowed by England = fear for NA
- Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Quartering Act, Tea Act

33

Tea Act (4)

(= monopoly British East Indian Company)
- Colonist threw tea in Boston Harbour
= act of defiance
= colonists against Britain
=> punitive measures by Britain

34

Declaration of Independence (1776-1783) (10)

After punitive measurements by Britsh:
- Colonists formed shadow government
- drafted by 5 men; mainly written by Thomas Jefferson
- treaty signed on July 4th, 1776
- recognized by Britain in the Treaty of Paris, 3 september 1783 => ending War of Independence.

- 60% detailed list of grievances against King George III
- liberal attitudes towards NA + slaves
- advance theoretical case for the revolution
- discuss human rights
- discuss national sovereignty
- declare 13 colonies independent

35

American revolution (11)

- guerrilla warfare with small militias
- difficult logistics for Britsh
- Colonists got help by French + Dutch
- Red uniforms = no camouflage = British
- Colonists fought for freedom
- British fought for the King
=> first colonial revolt
=> model for guerilla warfare
=> no bloody aftermath
=> government by social contract; 13 independent states = 1 nation
=> influenced French Revolution

36

Founding Fathers (11)

- George Washington
- James Maddison
- Thomas Jefferson
- John Adams
- Benjamin Franklin
- Alexander Hamilton
- John Hancock
- Patrick Henry
- Thomas Paine
- John Marshall
- John Jay

37

Key words Declaration of Indepence (5)

Equality, liberty, pursuit of hapiness, governement gets power from the people, layering powers so it's most likely to assure people's safety + happiness

38

US government (5)

- limited government;
- Republicanism;
- checks & balances;
- federalism
- popular sovereignty

39

limited government;

do as little as possible to intervene

40

republicanism

president elected for limited years and power by the people

41

checks and balances

trias politica; a government form in which legislative, executive and judiciary powers are seperated and independent and checked by each other.

42

federalism

a combination of general and regional government

43

popular sovereignty

a government formed by elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.
Phylosophers: Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

44

Bill of Rights (definition + 5)

First 10 amendments to the constitution. Proposed after a battle of ratification and crafted to address objections raised by anti-federalists. It adds specific guarantees of personal freedom and rights.
1. Freedom of religion, speech, press, petition and assembly
2. right to keep and bear arms (in order to maintain a well-regulated militia)
3. No quartering of soldiers
4. Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures
5 tm 8. rights of accused, trail, double jeopardy, jury etc.

45

Elements of 1840s (7)

- expansionism
- nationalism
- opportunity
- Industrial revolution
- West has vast tracks of land ripe for the taking
- West has rich soil + abundant game for hunting
- West = Indian territory byt nomadic => settlers continued to claim Indian lands

46

Views settlers on NA (1840s)

- migratory social structure => unfit to work the land properly

47

manifest destiny

Settlers are destined to expand across America because of the religious notion of Divine Providence. God has chosen the American people to establish a new and better nation from Atlantic to Pacific.

48

Divine Providence

God's intervention in the world = God has chosen the American people => superior => new better nation

49

Mexican War (1846-1848) (8)

President James Polk tried to purchase California + lands south west before conflict.

March 1846: mobilization of American forces along the Rio Grande=> reaction from Mexico = deep desired war.

1848:
- America defeated Mexicans + negotiated settlement
- US paid 15million for Canada, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, some of Texas
- Extreme racism: Mexican's mixed race heritage = threat of racial mixing
- Allow slavery in new territories or not?
- Slavery = threat Northern working-class men who wanted to migrate westwards. West = land of opportunity => independence + prosperity

50

< 1840 expansion

no further than Mississippi valley

51

nullifiers

Party 1832 of John C Calhoun interested in annuling federal laws by state government

52

1840< expansion

Oregon Trail

53

Oregon Trail (4)

- Track across the plains + Rocky Mountains,
- appr 2,100 miles =
- 4-6 months by wagon =
- 400,000 attemps

54

1848-1855 expansion/gold rush (7)

- Gold in Northern California
- 1854: 300,000 arrived
- miners from east + abroad
- create State of California
- San Francisco = great city
- American drove Mexicans + Chinese away
- Reducing Indian population by Americans

55

forty-niner

Nickname for miners of the 1849 gold rush in N. California.

56

Homestead Act (1862)

every citizen + foreigner who asked for citizenship right to claim government land in the west. Each man could claim 65 hectares. After living + farming 5yrs pay 10 dollar => land is yours.

57

Mormons (6)

- plural marriages = religious polygamy
- believe in Bible + Book of Mormon
- No alcohol, Tobacco, coffee, tea
- family minded
- West (Utah - Salt Lake City)
- create own isolated society based on their religious believes

58

Cowboy (4)

- cattle drivers from Texas to Kansas (rail heads)
- cattle drivers from Texas to cattle market in Chicago (1850s cattle boom => cowboy boom
- stereotype: gunslingers, evil outlaws, fight the violent NA, frontiersman hero, cattle ranching
- life cowboy = harsh

59

The South (7)

- large-scale farming; fertile soil + warm climate
- Tobacco + cotton
- low Industrial development
- no large cities apart from New Orléans
- slavery
- economy stand still
- Democratic political party

60

The North (8)

- abundant natural resources (coales)
- flourishing industry
- immigrant labour from Europe
- no slavery
- good transportation
- more careers in business, medicine + education
- economy = booming
- Whig/Republican political party

61

Democratic party (19th C)

South= populism = centrist party = common man (farmers/workers etc)

62

Whig/Republican party (3)

North = successor to the National Republican and Anti-Masonic Parties
- supremacy of the US Congress over president
- program of modernization, banking, and economic protectionism to stimulate manufacturing

63

Foundations of slavery in America (5 periods)

- 1619: Dutch ship 20 Africans in Jamestown
- African slaves cheaper European indentured servants
- spread through colonies
- 17th + 18thC: blacks mainly Tobacco, rice, indigo in South
- 1793: invention cotton gin=> transition large-scale production Tobacco to cotton.=> dependence on slave labour

64

indentured servant

an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed period.

65

Slavery stats (3)

- Unesco: 25million slaves deported
- Most slaves to Middle + South America
- stop on import US 1808

66

freeman

former slave = set free

67

increase European immigration (3)

- failed revolutions 1848
- Irish Potato famine (1845-1852
- general poverty

68

life of slave (5)

- dependent on owners
- not allowed to learn to read/write
- severe discipline + punishments
- strict hierarchy among slaves
- families divided by sale or removal

69

rise abolition movement

1830s-1860s

70

Debate on slavery (8)

- expansion westward = growing conflict over slavery (limit / expand)
- maintain balance slave/free states in US
- Mexican war => tension increased
- 1857 Supreme Court= all territories (NA) open to slavery
- 1860: Abraham Lincoln president
- 1861: 7 Southern states form Confederate States of America
- 1861-1865: Civil War = preservation Union; debate slavery crucial role
- 1865: 13th amendment = abolishing slavery

71

13th amendment

abolishing slavery

72

civil war

1861-1865
Confederate - Union
slavery

73

Reconstruction (8)

Rebuilding South: government, society, infrastructure + economy (1865-1877)
- drastically reduced white-male population (result war)
- without use black slave labour = problem economy
- large population freed black people
Successes:
- US= unified nation
- 13th, 14th, 15th amendments = African Americans elected to political office
Failures:
- blacks blocked from voting = undermine Civil War Amendments
- political help North diminished
- racism still evident

74

Jim Crow laws (5)

- segregation in public places (mainly South)
- Jim Crow = slang black man
- Great Migration = 6 million relocated North
- 'Separate but equal' => school is school (no concern for quality) = justifying segregation
- all over society (touched every aspect of life)

75

Second Industrial Revolution (1870-1914) (6)

Due to:
- urbanisation + rapid territorial expansion
- abundance natural resources (steel/coal)
- immigrant labour
- expanding market manufactured goods
- capital for investment
- railroad construction

76

transcontinental railroad (6)

- transport of people + goods
- coast to coast => local communication + economy coast-to-coast
- promising lands West accessible
- expansion economy
- Chinese built Great Wall/(mostly) Chinese built railroad
- harsh + dangerous work

77

age of Tycoon

19th century business magnates; steel, oil, railways, finances

78

WWI (6)

- planned neutral = isolationism
- submarine warfare = sinking Lusitania (1915)
- Zimmermann Telegram (Jan. 1917) Germany offering lost lands Mexican war back. Telegram was send by Western Union via HQ in London. => send to president US.
- winning WWI => US important world power
- over 116,000 US military died
- Spanish Flu pandemic (1918)

79

Lusitania

British ocean liner briefly the world's largest passenger ship. Launched in 1906 for the North Atlantic trade. She made a total of 202 trans-Atlantic crossings.
Sank by a German submarine in 1915. (Escalating WWI)

80

Spanish Flu pandemic

1918
Spread by returning soldiers WWI; 50-100million deaths

81

Jazz age (3)

= roaring twenties
= period after WWI
= people tried to forget horros of war by dancing, music etc.

82

Prohibition era (major events = 3)

1. women allowed to vote
2. 1st transatlantic flight
3. Stock Market Crash (oct 1929)

83

Prohibition (7)

1920-1933
- alcohol American's national curse
- brewing, importing + selling prohibited (drinking wasn't)
- Theory = reduce drinking + violence
- Practise= opposite
=> bad for economy (saloons, breweries shut down)
=> more illegal liquor = dangerous
=> crime increase

84

WWII (3)

- tried to stay neutral = isolism
- Attack Pearl Harbour (1941= naval base) by Japan (2,403 Americans killed)
- >60 million killed => 419,400 Americans

85

Great Depression (5)

- 1929-1939
- 29 October stock market crash = Black Tuesday
- WW effect = international interdependence of economies after WWI (European reliance on Am. investments)
- International trade - 50%
- 25% unemployed

86

Causes Great Depression (7)

=> signs as of 1926 (collapse land prices Florida)
=> too many goods produced + not sold
=> small banks no funds to cope sudden rush + take out of savings
=> too much speculation on stock market
=> crahs huge psychological blow
=> US recalled European loans/investments => downfall European economy
=> collapse European banks => general world crisis

87

Dustbowl (6)

- aka Dirty Thirties
- big draught in Great Plains
- severe dust storms => damaging ecology + agriculture Am + Canadian prairies (Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas, Colorado)
- combination little rain, light topsoil + strong winds
- dense dust clouds (aka black blizzards)
- 60% population moved (mostly to California = Far West = Great Depression)

88

New Deal (7)

- 1932 = Franklin D. Roosevelt elected =
- promise radical change
- relief for poor
- recovery economy
- reform to prevent new depressions

=> Works Progress Administration
=> 1935 Social Security Act = basis modern welfare state

89

Link Jazz Age - WWII

Jazz Age = forgetting war by music/dance ended by the Great Depression which ended by building weapons for WWII

90

WPA

Works Progress Administration = part New Deal = Franklin D Roosevelt = 1932:
-> employed millions by building bridges, highways, parks, schools (public services NOT commercial)

91

1950s (6)

- Eisenhower
- prosperity
- consumer credit
- G.I. Bill = support WWII veterans = education (omscholen)
- Cheap oil
- Lack of European + Asian competition = Marshall plan

92

Marshall plan

1950s: officially the European Recovery Program, ERP
US gave over $13 billion (approximately $130 billion in current dollar value as of June 2016) in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II. The plan was in operation for four years beginning April 8, 1948.

93

Reagonomics (7)

- reaction to economically unstable 70s (supporting Israel = oil crisis)
- trickle-down economics
- reduction government spending
- reduce federal income tax + capital gain
- reduce government regulation
- limit inflation
- stimulate working of the market (government isn't solution = problem) (Thatcherism)

94

trickle-down economics (3)

= laissez-faire
= supply side economics
= favor wealthy/priviledged
Economic growth can be created by investing in capital and by lowering barriers on the production of goods and services. (very disputed, Trump???)

95

2008 crisis causes (3)

- banks created too much money (= giving loans + creating debts)
- money used to push up house prices + speculate on financial markets
- debts became unpayable for people => banks bankrupt (Lehman brothers)

96

2008 crisis (4)

- people sold their houses to pay debts => house prices fall => mortgage isn't houseprice => harder to pay back debt
- Banks paniced=> cut loans => downwards spiral
- Government bail out banks + financial institutes => money still flowing = spurring economy
- after crisis: banks refused to lend money => economy shrunk

97

Political system US (def + 3)

Trais Politica: 3 constitutional branches = seperation of powers = 'Checks and balances'
1. legislative= congress= senate + house of representatives
2. Executive = president + vice-president + cabinet
3. judicial = supreme court + other federal courts

98

Federalism (2)

- 50 states; own government, governor = executive, house of representatives + senate, state court system
- federal government (= DC = district of Columbia) only limited powers (= constitution) => 1865< = increasing power

99

presidential elections (6)

- Quadrennial (every 4 yrs)
- Democratic vs Republican Party (only independent elected president = George Washington = 1st)
- Primary elections = state level => candidates
- Indirect election (= electerol college) to select President + Vice-President (same bill)
- candidate with majority of electoral votes = President => candidate most popular votes can lose
- campaigning

100

electoral college (3)

- 538 members= 435 house of rep/100 senators/3 members DC
- elected by voters
- they elect party's president/vice-president

101

Recent developments concerning elections

- Tea Party (2009)= protest against taxes, government interference.

102

Senate (3)

- 100 members (2 per state) = 1e kamer = upper chamber
- composes the legislature
- term of 6 years

103

House of Representatives (4)

- Representatives of the districts, based on population measured by the U.S. Census, with each district entitled one representative = 435
- composes the legislature + power to initiate all bills related to revenue, the impeachment of federal officers
- term of 2 years; resident commisionor = 4yrs
- in case no candidate receives a majority of electors for President => House elects one of the top three recipients for that office (one vote per state)

104

Supreme Court (3)

- highest federal court
- 1 Chief Justice + 8 associate justices
- SCOTUS justices = appointed for life by President + ratified by Senate (majority; was 2/3 => more power for President)

105

SCOTUS

Supreme Court Of The United States

106

Hot topics 2016 election (7)

- race + immigration (ISIS + Black lives matter)
- terrorism (ISIS)
- foreign policy (Russia)
- economy (more jobs)
- environment/climate change (coal mines)
- health care (Obama care)
- religion (islam/puritans = US suprimacy)

107

Lynching (3)

- late 19th century racial tension grew
- South Whites blamed blacks (= newly freed slaves) for financial problems = anger => lynching
- 1882-1968: 4,743 lynchings (mainly South) = white supremacy

108

KKK (7)

Ku Klux Klan
- White Southern resistance to Reconstruction-era policies (1865-1877)
- nearly every Southern state
- underground, intimidation + violence
- reestablish white supremacy (Jim Crow laws)
- white Protestant groups revived KKK early 20th C
- burning crosses, staging rallies, parades, marches, denouncing immigrants, Catholics, Jews + blacks
- 1960s: Civil Rights movement=> surge of local KKK (bombing, beating, shooting black + white activists)

109

Civil Rights Movement (2)

- obtain civil rights for black Americans
- Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King Jr, Malcolm X, John F Kennedy

110

Martin Luther King Jr (6)

- civil rights leader
- spoke out against arrest Rosa Parks (didn't want to stand for white man on the bus)
- organized peaceful protests
- march Washington for jobs + freedom
- 'I have a dream' speech
- Nobel Peace prize 1964

111

1954

desegregation of public schools (Brown vs Board of Education)

112

1955

Rosa Parks (1913-2005) arrested = breaking city ordinance = refusing give up seat in bus to white man => momentum for Civil Rights Movement

113

1957

Martin Luther King Jr (1929-1968) = Southern Christian Leadership Conference = leading engine Civil Rights Movement

114

1963

JFK assassinated (22 November)

115

1964

Civil Rights Act = prohibition of dicrimination of all kinds

116

1965

Voting Right Act = outlawing disenfranching of African American voters

117

1968

Martin Luther King Jr assassinated

118

Religion (5)

- most religious developed nations (was basis foundation)
- religious plurality = co-existing of several religions
- 1st amendment = freedom of religion
- religious prejudice
- state/religion separated; religion prominant role in politics

119

immigrants (7)

- nation of immigrants
- American dream = rags to riches myth
- waves of immigration
- Ellis Island = 1st stop (by sea)
- Push (quotas)/ Pull (American Dream) scenario
- Statue of Liberty = warm welcome vs immigration policies
- resistance to immigration policies (quota acts, limit immigration)

120

Immigration policies < 1965 (4)

- national origins formula = limited immigration and naturalization opportunities for people from areas outside Western Europe.
- Exclusion laws for immigrants from Asia (as of 1880)
- quota laws 1920s: curtailed Eastern European immigration.
- Civil Rights Movement => replacement ethnic quotas with per-country limits.

121

US culture (2)

- mix of cultures/backgrounds => African American, Hyspanic Americans, White Americans etc
- Salad bowl = co-existing cultures, each their own specifics, not blending

122

foreign policy (2)

- isolationism
- interventionism
George Washington: European politics aren't our politics, so we don't want to get involved'

123

isolationism

Minding our own business (America first)
Ex: WWI/WWII neutral up until direct action affecting US economy/defense.

124

interventionism

Intervening with our mens business.
= American supriority (we are the best so we know best)
Ex: stop communism = Cold War/Korean War, Vietnam war.

125

Monroe doctrine

No new collonies for European countries but also US will not intervene with European politics = help rebellious S. American countries become independent from European empires

126

War on Terror

result 9/11 attacks (first attack on US soil, attacked symbol of American Dream/prosperity)

127

Jingoism (2)

- strong form of patriotism = hardcore nationalism
- agressive foreign policy; to spread particular values
= 1890s intention to annex Hawaii

128

Exceptionalism

US is example for other nations (we are the best, we are chosen by God) => need to spread its democracy, economic policy around the world
(city upon a hill = work for it => everybody will see the beauty)

129

Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Quartering Act, Tea Act

Taxes by British government to increase their funding. Not collected by the Americans. They were afraid these taxes would not help them just the British, getting richer. All these taxes without help or representation in the British government led up to the War of Independence (1775–1783)