Flashcards in SARCOIDOSIS Deck (12):
Abnormal collection of inflammatory cells which form a granuloma. Can affect any organ but lungs and lymph nodes are the most commonly affected.
What are the causes of sarcoidosis?
The exact cause of sarcoidosis is not know.
some heritability however, differs across races. Black more likely to have family member with sarcoidosis.
Infectious agents -
Mycobacteria, fungi, borrelia and rickettsia
Autoimmune - some evidence for Th1 lymphokine prevalence.
What are the cell types that accumulate to form a granuloma?
The production of which inflammatory mediators is increased during the granulomatous inflammation? (Name at least 3)
Is the immune response mediated by Th1 or Th2?
How do patient with sarcoidosis respond to antigen challenges such as tuberculin?
The immune response is suppressed. This is paradoxical.
What is the paradoxical suppression of immune response to antigen challenges coupled with a hyper-reactive immune response causing the granulomas suggestive of?
A state of anergy
What is anergy?
An inability of the immune system to mount an appropriate response.
What are patients with sarcoidosis more at risk of developing?
How might a patient with suspected sarcoidosis present? (Name at least 3 symptoms)
Shortness of breath
Joint aches and pains
What signs might a patient with suspected sarcoidosis exhibit on examination?
Erythema nodosum (red inflammation of fat cells under the skin)
Raised JVP (from RVF as a result of pulmonary arterial hypertension)
Reduced breath sounds
Abnormal breath sounds