SB2 - The Brain and Eyes Flashcards Preview

HCHS Year 9 Triple Science > SB2 - The Brain and Eyes > Flashcards

Flashcards in SB2 - The Brain and Eyes Deck (65):
1

What are the steps in Mitosis? (In order)

(Mitosis)

Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis

2

What happens in Interphase?

(Mitosis)

The contents inside of a mother cell duplicate.

3

What happens in Prophase?

(Mitosis)

The chromosomes condense while the membrane around the nucleus breaks down.

4

What happens in Metaphase?

(Mitosis)

The chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell.

5

What happens in Anaphase?

(Mitosis)

Cell fibres pull apart the chromosomes. The chromosomes go to opposite ends of the cell.

6

What happens in Telophase?

(Mitosis)

Membranes form around each set of chromosomes, causing a divide down the middle.

7

What happens in Cytokinesis?

(Mitosis)

The cytoplasm and membranes finally divide and separate into two sister cells.

8

Why is Mitosis important?

(Mitosis)

So an organism can grow, repair itself, or asexually reproduce.

9

Why do asexual organisms rely on asexual reproduction?

(Mitosis)

To keep the population levels high- because they are the bottom of the food chain.

10

Define diploid

(Mitosis)

Double, two haploid cells come together.

11

Define haploid

(Mitosis)

Half- half of a diploid.

12

How do cancers grow?

(Mitosis)

One gene in a cell may change, causing a cell to grow uncontrollably, then creates a mass of abnormal cells. Tumours invades/destroys surrounding tissue.

13

Define growth in animals

(Mitosis)

Increase in cell number and size.

14

Give 3 examples of specialised animal cells

(Growth in animals)

Egg cells, sperm cells, red blood cells, white blood cells, ciliates epithelial cells

15

Define cell differentiation

(Growth in animals)

The process in which a cell changes to become specialised for its job. Specialised cells makes an organism more efficient.

16

Are stem cells differentiated or undifferentiated?

(Stem cells)

Undifferentiated

17

Where are stem cells found?

(Stem cells)

In bone marrow and animal embryos.

18

What are stem cells?

(Stem cells)

Cells that have the potential to grow into anything, such as organs. Embryo’s stem cells are more flexible as they turn into organs and muscles whereas stem cells from the bone marrow more commonly turn into white or red blood cells.

19

Where can stem cells be used in medicine?

(Stem cells)

Baldness, bone marrow disorders, blood cancers, immune system disorders, spine and brain related disorders.

20

Why are people opposed to stem cell research?

(Stem cells)

Abortion

21

What is the brain made up of?

(The brain)

Corpus cellosum, frontal lobe, hypo fellomos, thalamus, pituitary gland, cerebellum, cerebrum, medulla oblongata.

22

What are cerebral hemispheres?

(The brain)

The two halves of the brain.

23

What is the function of the hypo fellomos?

(The brain)

Body temperature and water

24

What is the function of the cerebrum?

(The brain)

It controls muscles, movement, memory, language, vision, emotion, and logic.

25

What is the function of the pituitary gland?

(The brain)

Puberty and hormones.

26

What is the function of the medulla oblongata?

(The brain)

It controls heart rate and breathing (unconscious acts)

27

What is the function of the cerebellum?

(The brain)

Co-ordination and balance.

28

What is the definition of a CT scan?

(The brain)

An x-ray of the brain to show images of the brain. It shows the main structures but not the function. It can also show damage to the brain, which could be a potential loss of the function for a patient.

29

Give the definition of a PET scan

(The brain)

Fancier than CT scans, it uses radioactivity to show activity of the brain. They are very detailed and can be used for studying disorders that change the brain’s activity e.g. mental health disorders.

30

What is one disadvantage of a CT scan

(The brain)

They don’t show the activity of the brain, only what functions/doesn’t function in the brain

31

Give one advantage of the PET scan

(The brain)

Easier to diagnose disorders for patients, it’s clearer to see the brain

32

Explain the effects of spinal cord damage

(The brain)

Loss of bladder/bowel control, exaggerated spasms, pain/intense stinging, change in sexual functions, and sexual sensitivity.

33

What would happen if there was damage to a certain part of an organism’s brain?

(The brain)

It would lose the function from that area of the brain.

34

What are the main pain reactors?

(The brain)

The spinal cord and the brain.

35

List 2 parts of the nervous system

(The nervous system)

Brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, spinal nerves

36

State the 5 senses

(The nervous system)

Touch, taste, sight, hearing, and smell

37

Define stimulus

(The nervous system)

Change in something that is detected e.g. pain

38

Define receptors

(The nervous system)

Parts of sense organs and they detect each stimulus

39

State the co-ordinators

(The nervous system)

The brain and the spine

40

What is the function of an effector?

(The nervous system)

Make reactions happen e.g. pain reactions

41

What are effectors?

(The nervous system)

Muscles and glands

42

State the order of a response to pain

(The nervous system)

Stimulus
Receptor
Co-ordinator
Effector
RESPONSE

43

State the three different neurones

(The nervous system)

Sensory neurone, motor neurone, and the relay neurone

44

Give one example of how neurones are adapted to their functions

(The nervous system)

The myelin sheath that surrounds the axon/dendron insulates and quickens the electrical impulse

45

What are sensory neurones attached to?

(The nervous system)

Other neurones

46

Where is the nucleus placed on a sensory neurone?

(The nervous system)

On the dendron

47

What is the motor neurone attached to?

(The nervous system)

A muscle or gland

48

Where is the nucleus placed on the motor neurone?

(The nervous system)

Before the axon

49

What is the relay neurone attached to?

(The nervous system)

Other neurones

50

Where is the nucleus placed on a relay neurone?

(The nervous system)

Before the axon inside of the cell body

51

What is the function of a neurone?

(The nervous system)

To pass an electrical impulse for a reaction.

52

What are the main parts of the eye?

(The eye)

The lens, the fovea, the ciliary muscle, the suspensory ligaments, the pupil, the iris, the cornea, the conjunctiva, the sclerotic, the choroid, and the retina.

53

What is the function of the lens?

(The eye)

Focus light onto the retina

54

What is the function of the optic nerve?

(The eye)

Carries impulses from the eye to the brain

55

What is the function of the retina?

(The eye)

Detects colour and details

56

What is the function of the ciliary muscles?

(The eye)

Changes the thickness of the lens

57

What is the function of the pupil?

(The eye)

To shine light through the eye.

58

How can long-sighted eyes be corrected?

(The eye)

Glasses with convex lenses.

59

How can short-sighted eyes be corrected?

(The eye)

Glasses with concave lenses.

60

Define a cataract

(The eye)

A cataract is a cloudy layer over the lens that doesn’t allow light into the eye normally.

61

What are the effects of cataracts?

(The eye)

Visible colour is less vibrant and difficulty seeing bright lights.

62

What can be done to reverse cataracts?

(The eyes)

Lens replacement surgery.

63

What are effectors?

(Synapses)

Effectors are what makes the response happen.

64

What do neurotransmitters do when they reach another neurone?

(Synapses)

They send an electrical impulse to a receptor they are attached to.

65

Define synapses

(Synapses)

Connection between 2 neurones.