Sbob 9 Flashcards Preview

History of medicine > Sbob 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sbob 9 Deck (47)
Loading flashcards...
31

How long did Gouraud oriental cream last on the market?

Was commercially available for around 60 years

32

What is elixir sulfanilamide?

It was a liquid preparation of sulfanilamide, raspberry flavouring, and dissolved in diethylene glycol as a solvent

33

When was elixir sulfanilamide sold?

It was created in 1936 and marketed in 1937

34

What was the problem with elixir sulfanilamide?

- Diethylene glycol is poisonous to humans and mammal
- It causes kidney damage and failure
- It caused mass poisoning and the death of over 100 people
- It influenced the passing of the "Food, drug and cosmetic act"

35

When was the food, drug and cosmetic act signed and by who?

In 1938 by the US congress

36

What did the FD&C act do?

- It gave authority to the FDA (Food and Drug administration) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, medical devices and cosmetics
- Defines food adulteration and additives, drug composition and licensing (including efficacy), medical devices regulation, cosmetics components and adulteration
- Replaced the pure food and drug act of 1906

37

Did elixir sulfanilamide get fined?

- The Massengill Co. paid a minimum fine under the Pure Food Act as they labelled the preparation “elixir” but contained no alcohol in it.
- The company did not claim any responsibility for what happened

38

What is DNP?

2-4 dinitrophenol is used as an antiseptic, as a pesticide, intermediate in the production of wood preservatives, some herbicides, etc.

39

How does DNP work?

- It is a proton ionophore
- Shuttling protons across the mitochondria and chloroplast membrane wasting energy from the proton gradient
- Reduces the ability to produce ATP instead releasing heat (one of the best known agents for uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation)
- Raises temperature up to 42/43 degrees

40

What period of time was DNP used?

- It was used extensively from 1933 to 1938
- In 1938 concerns about dangerous side effects and rapidly developing cataracts resulted in DPB being discontinued by the US
- In 1990 it was repopularized by Dan Duchaine "steroid guru" who promoted its use and a new era of DNP use began

41

How many deaths in the UK are caused by DNP per year?

At least one death per year

42

What was DNP used for in humans?

- Weight loss drug
- Russians in world war 2 used it to keep soldiers warm in winter
- In 1980 a russian born doctor set up clinics (Nicholas Bachynski) set up clinics in US promoting weight loss treatment using this drug
- Bodybuilding drug for slimming

43

What was thalidomide prescribed for?

- It was primarily prescribed as a sedative or hypnotic
- Also claimed to cure anxiety, morning sickness in pregnant women, insomnia, etc.

44

Where was thalidomide first marketed?

- In West germany under the trade name contergan
- Became an OTC drug in October 1957
- FDA started testing it in 1960 for approval

45

What was the problem with thalidomide?

It caused serious malformations in over 10000 infants born

46

What happened to FDA approval of thalidomide?

- A total of 17 children with thalidomide induced malformations were born
- The thalidomide scandal led to the introduction of the Kefauver-Harris Amendment (1962) or "Drug efficacy ammendment" to the FD&C

47

What is Kefauver-Harris ammendment?

- Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
- It introduced a requirement for drug manufacturers to provide proof of the effectiveness and safety of their drugs before approval, required drug advertising to disclose accurate information about side effects, and stopped cheap generic drugs being marketed as expensive drugs under new trade names as new "breakthrough" medications.