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Flashcards in Schumann 1846 Deck (34):
1

Context

Concert pianist, composer during Romantic period
Piano trio, most important form of chamber music
Chamber music played in salons and concerts, Beethoven arranged symphonies for a piano trio, less virtuosic

2

Melody

Sonata form, 2 subjects
All about melodic contrast, periodic phrasing
Chromaticism
Development based around 1st sub

3

All about melodic contrast, periodic phrasing

1A, down 5th, tied rhythm to imperfect cadence
1B, animated rhythm, rising sequence, up octave, contrast within subject which leads onto next phrase (Before, Septet Beethoven, periodic phrasing)

4

Chromaticism

2A, syncopated, disjunct, conjunct appoggiatura
2B, chattering quavers against melodic dim 7 in vln
(Before, Schubert, Die Stadt, arpeggiated dim 7) characteristic of Romantic music, very expressive

5

Development around 1st sub

Based around perfect 5 motif from 1A, contracted, expanded to fit harmony
Characteristic of Romantic music to develop existing subjects by exploring different keys
(Before, Beethoven Archduke Trio, development based on motif from 1st subject)

6

Texture

In discursive dorm, ideas passed around, texture changes constantly
Sonata form all about melodic contrast, created by changing texture
Predominantly mel dom hom
Polyphonically animated homophony
Polyphony
Pedal

7

Sonata form is all about melodic contrast, created by changing the texture

Characteristic of chamber music
(Before, Beethoven, Septet in Eb, 1st mv)

8

Predominantly melody dominated homophony

Exposition, 1st subject, vln accompanied by piano, based around melodic contrast, highlighted by texture
(After, Dvorak, American String Quartet)

9

Polyphonically animated homophony

Polyphonically animated homophony
Idea repeated, fragmented countermelody, used to develop melody without losing emphasis on the melody, augument texture

10

Close imitation

Between vc, vln, quaver figuration in piano, develop melodic fragments by passing it around different parts
(After, Brahms piano trio C min, 1st mv)

11

Pedal textures

Dominant pedal in vc, reinforce tonality, drive towards cadence point for resolution

12

Harmony

Functional harmony shaped by perfect cadences
Romantic expressive chords

13

Functional harmony, shaped by perfect cadences

Predominantly tonal, diatonic (Before, Beethoven, Archduke trio)
Major, minor chords in root of 1st inversion
Ends with a perfect cadence, charcteristc of Romantic music, gives structure to subjects

14

Romantic chords

Chromatic, dim 7th
(Before, Schubert Die Stadt, arpeggiated dim 7)

French augumented 6th, used to approach V, Ic

Dissonant extensions, dominant minor 9th
(Just before, Brahms, piano quintet F min, chromatic chords)
Be more expressive, characteristic Romantic feature

15

Tonality

Functional, sonata form focuses on melodic and key contrast
Follows the rules of sonata form
Pedals

16

Exposition tonality

G min to Bb maj, v characteristic of sonata form pieces
(After, Brahms, 1st mv piano trio C min)

17

Development tonality

Very modulatory section, more foreign keys, Eb, F, C min, v characteristic of sonata form pieces
(Before, Schubert string quartet C major, mod to E maj, unexpected)

18

Recapitulation tonality

Return to G min, 2nd subject to G maj, key contrast at end, develop exposition material
G min in closing coda, sense of returning home
(After, Dvorak, American string quartet)

19

Tonic, dominant pedal

Strengthen sense of tonality

20

Rhythm, tempo and metre

4/4, no change of metre
Allegro moderato
Rhythmically distinct themes

21

4/4 with no change in metre

Feels like 2/2 unless harmonic rhythm is fast
(Before, Archduke trio Beethoven, 4/4, does not change throughout), common for 1st mv to stay in same metre

22

Allegro moderato

Rare poco rit, not a common feature in chamber music (After, Dvorak, Dumky trio, changes of tempo throughout)

23

Rhythmically distinct themes

Running quavers throughout the piece, a strong sense of movement and drive

1A, Lyrical, tied over juxtaposed by ascending dotted rhythms with expressive leap down melodic contrast created by rhythmic contrast

Syncopations, do not obscure meter, drive music forward (Before, Mendelssohn, D min piano trio,)

24

Structure

Sonata form dictates tonality and melody through structure
Exposition
Development
Recapitulation

25

Sonata form dictates tonality and melody through structure

Used often in the Classical era, still used in Romantic music (Before, Septet, Beethoven, sonata form after slow intro)

26

Exposition

2 contrasting subjects, 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 2A, 2B
In G min and Bb maj, characteristic of sonata form (After, Brahms C min 1st mv, 2 contrasting ideas)
Bridge,
Codetta

27

Development

Based on 1A perfect 5th, expanded, contracted to fit harmony
Moves through foreign keys such as Eb, F, C min, develop existing material, v characteristic
(Before, Beethoven Archduke trio, development based on melodic material from 1st subject)

28

Recapitulation

Repeat of subjects from exposition but in tonic major key for key contrast
Characteristic of sonata form (Mozart G min no 40, recapitulation shorter)

29

Sonority

Piano trio
Role of piano
String techniques
Role of violin
Role of cello

30

Piano trio

Normally piano dominates with a v virtuosic part (Beethoven piano trios, very virtuosic)
Here, all instruments have equal parts, very discursive, to be played by capable amateurs
Very intimate writing, to be played in salons, characteristic of chamber music

31

Role of piano

Provides melodic, accompaniment
Middle range is favored to avoid masking the low cellos and the high violins, occasionally in lower range

32

String techniques

Double stopping to fill texture during quieter moments, loud dramatic moments
(Before, Mendelssohn, Piano trio, emphatic statement at end)

33

Role of violin

Provides melodic, accompaniment
(After, Dvorak’s American string quartet
Occasionally uses triple stopping, thicken texture at dramatic moments, quiet moments

34

Role of cello

Provides bass harmony support, including pedal points (Before, Septet, Beethoven)
Resonant low range outlines bass
Tenor like mid range used to outline inner parts
High material used to highlight prominent melodic lines, notated in treble clef but written an octave higher than it sounds