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1

Coulombs Law

K.q1.q2 / r^2

Used to calculate the value of the charge (force) between 2 atoms.

2

Avogadro' said number

6.02 x 10^23

= 1 mole

3

Electron shell fitting into subshells

s2 p6 d10 f14
1. @
2. @ @
3. @ @ @
4. @ @ @ @

4

pH

pH = -log[H+]

5

[H+]

[H+] = 10^-pH

6

pOH

pOH = -log[OH-]

7

[OH-]

[OH-] = 10^-pOH

8

pH + pOH

pH + pOH = 14

9

Strong Acid & pKa

Stronger the ACID = Smaller the pKa

10

Strong Base & pKb

Stronger the BASE = Smaller the pKb

11

Exothermic

Release / Lose heat energy

12

Endothermic

Need / gains heat energy

13

Gibbs free energy

🔺G = 🔺H - T.🔺S

14

Gibbs free energy and Spontaneity

🔺G<0 -> spontaneous
🔺G>0 -> NOT spont.
🔺G=0 -> EQUILIBRIUM