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Flashcards in Science - General Biology Deck (103):
1

Define: DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid - controls activities of the cell

2

Define: plasma cell membrane

semipermeable membrane that separates contents of the cell from the surrounding fluid

3

Define: interstitial fluid

fluid that surrounds the contents of the cell

4

Define: cytoplasm

fluid matrix found between the plasma membrane and the nucleus

5

Define: ribosome

sites of protein synthesis in the cell

6

Define: endoplasmic reticulum

transport within the cell and is made up of many channels

7

Define: golgi complex

modifies and packages proteins destined for use in the cell or for export from the cell

8

Define: lysosome

eats garbage

9

Define: cell wall

surrounds plant cells

10

Define: chloroplast

contain chlorophyll important for photosynthesis

11

Define: vacuole

compartments inside the cytoplasm for secretion, excretion and storage

12

Define: chromatin

loose form of how DNA is found

13

Define: chromosomes

condensed rod like shaped bodies that DNA turns into when cell is dividing

14

Define: mitosis

cell division in which the chromosomes are doubles prior to division

15

Define: zygote

cell created by the union of a sperm and egg

16

Define: meiosis

divison in which chromosomes are doubles then two subsequent divisions happen and produce 4 daughter cells

17

Define: ATP

adenosine triphosphate: chemical that cells use to store and transfer energy within itself.

18

three types of muscle tissue

skeletal, cardiac and smooth

19

four types of connective tissue

cartilage, blood, fat, bone

20

what is an organ

various tissues combined

21

what is an organ system

number of organs working together to carry out a major function

22

what is an organism

highest level of organization, human body

23

what is the name of the book that Charles Darwin published that presented the evidence for evolution

On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection

24

what year did Charles Darwin publish "On the origin of species by means of natural selection"

1859

25

What is evolution?

theory regarding the process that have produced biological diversity

26

what were darwin two main arguments?

1. the present species evolved from ancestral ones
2. evolution occurs by means of natural selection

27

what is adaption?

the organisms that are best fit to survive

28

what is the fossil record?

the evidence that supports the theory of evolution that consists of ancient remnants

29

vertebrates

animals with backbones

30

what is biogeography?

the geographical distribution of plants and animals

31

what is comparative anatomy?

the comparison of organisms structures

32

what is comparative embryology?

the comparison of organisms embryos

33

what is molecular biology?

biology at the molecular level

34

what is an example of evolution occurring today?

antibiotic resistant bacteria

35

what is taxonomy?

study of scientific classification that is grouped based on similarities and differences

36

what are the broadest units of classification in taxonomy?

kingdoms

37

what are the five kingdoms?

animal, plant, monera (bacteria), protist (algae) and fungi (mold, yeast)

38

what are the six specific classifications in taxonomy?

phylum, class, order, family, genus and species

39

how is the scientific name made up in taxonomy?

genus and species

40

when water is the same amount outside a cell than it is inside it is called...

isotonic

41

when the solute is more concentrated outside the cell than inside it is called...

hypertonic

42

when the solute concentration is lower than the inside of the cell it is called...

hypotonic

43

what is filtration?

the movement of water and solutes through the membrane by pressure

44

what are autotrophs?

organisms that produce their own food from inorganic substances

45

what are heterotrophs?

consumers of plants and animals

46

what are primary consumers?

herbivores or omnivores

47

what are secondary consumers?

carnivores or omnivores that eat herbivores

48

what are trophic levels of an ecosystem?

how organisms meets it nutritional needs

49

what is a food chain?

the path along which food is transferred from level to level

50

what is the interrelationship of many food chains

food web

51

what are decomposers?

consume nonliving organic material and release inorganic material

52

what is a biotic factor?

living parts of the ecosystem

53

what is a abiotic factor?

nonliving influences such as temperature

54

what is symbiosis?

separate species living together

55

what is the symbiosis in which one organism is harmed and one is benefiting?

parasitism

56

what is commensalism?

one species benefits and one remains unaffected

57

what is mutualism?

a symbiosis in which both species benefit

58

what is a biosphere?

entire portion of our planet that is inhabited by living things in a variety of ecosystems and communities.

59

inside of a biosphere there are groups of ecosystems that are common to the various types of geographical areas, what are these geographical areas called?

biomes

60

what biome has little precipitation and are more arid than all other biomes?

desert

61

what biome has a relatively constant temperature with constant daylight length throughout the year, high humidity and abundant rain?

tropical rain forest

62

what biome has air that contains enough moisture to support the growth of large trees and are found in the midlatitude regions of the world?

deciduous forests

63

what biome is found at high and cool elevations and seasons consist of short summers and long chilly winters?

coniferous forests

64

what biome is characterized by very cold temperatures and high altitude, trees can't grow here but bushes and shrub can

tundras

65

what is the process called where chlorophyll absorbs light energy in which the energy drives the synthesis of food molecules for plants

photosynthesis

66

what is chlorophyll?

a pigment that is located in the chloroplast of plant cells

67

carbon dioxide + water + light energy -->

carbohydrates + oxygen (photo synthesis)

68

what covers the stem and leaves of a plant as a waxy layer that helps prevent water loss through evaporation?

cuticle

69

what are the pores on plant leaves that allow carbon dioxide to enter and oxygen to be released during photosynthesis without losing too much water?

stomates

70

what part of flowering plants allow reproduction?

angiosperms

71

what part of a flower is in charge of encasing the flower before it blooms?

sepals

72

what are the petals useful for?

attracting pollinators

73

what is present in the middle of petals? (flower)

stamen and pistils

74

what does the anther do(flower)?

place of pollen production

75

what does the stamen do(flower)?

consists of the filament

76

what does the filament do (flower)?

supports the anther

77

what does the pistil do (flower)?

consists of the stigma

78

what does the stigma do (flower)?

receives pollen

79

what does the style do (flower)?

leads to the ovary

80

what is the ovary of the flower?

contains ovules and where fertilization occurs

81

what happens after fertilization of the flower?

ovules within the ovary develop into seeds

82

after fertilization what happens to the walls of the flower ovary?

the ovary thickens to protect the seed

83

what is a fruit?

thick fleshy protective layer after flower fertilization

84

what are genes?

instructions for all living things that determines characteristics of an organism

85

what are the pairs that genes are found in?

alleles

86

what is it called when an individual has two identical genes for a trait?

homozygous

87

who first explained and created the laws of dominance, segregation, and independent assortment?

Gregor Mendel

88

what is the law of dominance?

the dominant trait is expressed and recessive is masked

89

what is it called when an individual has one dominant and one recessive trait?

heterozygous

90

what is a phenotype?

the physical trait expressed

91

what is the law of segregation?

(punnet square) when two heterozygous reproduce, the hidden trait appears 25% in the offspring

92

what is the law of independent assortment?

genes on different chromosomes are inherited independently of each other

93

what does it mean when traits are linked?

when genes for different traits are in the same chromosome

94

what is codominance?

when a heterozygote trait expresses a mixture of the two traits -- a red trait and a white trait mix to make RW

95

how many pairs of chromosomes are autosomes? (NONSEX)

22

96

XX

female

97

XY

male

98

what are sex linked traits?

genes that are only found on the X chromosome

99

what are the names of the two men who first came up with the model that explains the structure of DNA?

James Watson and Francis Crick

100

what are the thousand of units that make up DNA?

nucleotides

101

what is each nucleotide composed of?

phosphate group, deoxyribose, nitrogenous base

102

what is deoxyribose?

five carbon sugar

103

what is the process called where forming m-rna according to the information contained the dna molecule

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