Flashcards in Science - General Biology Deck (103):
deoxyribonucleic acid - controls activities of the cell
Define: plasma cell membrane
semipermeable membrane that separates contents of the cell from the surrounding fluid
Define: interstitial fluid
fluid that surrounds the contents of the cell
fluid matrix found between the plasma membrane and the nucleus
sites of protein synthesis in the cell
Define: endoplasmic reticulum
transport within the cell and is made up of many channels
Define: golgi complex
modifies and packages proteins destined for use in the cell or for export from the cell
Define: cell wall
surrounds plant cells
contain chlorophyll important for photosynthesis
compartments inside the cytoplasm for secretion, excretion and storage
loose form of how DNA is found
condensed rod like shaped bodies that DNA turns into when cell is dividing
cell division in which the chromosomes are doubles prior to division
cell created by the union of a sperm and egg
divison in which chromosomes are doubles then two subsequent divisions happen and produce 4 daughter cells
adenosine triphosphate: chemical that cells use to store and transfer energy within itself.
three types of muscle tissue
skeletal, cardiac and smooth
four types of connective tissue
cartilage, blood, fat, bone
what is an organ
various tissues combined
what is an organ system
number of organs working together to carry out a major function
what is an organism
highest level of organization, human body
what is the name of the book that Charles Darwin published that presented the evidence for evolution
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
what year did Charles Darwin publish "On the origin of species by means of natural selection"
What is evolution?
theory regarding the process that have produced biological diversity
what were darwin two main arguments?
1. the present species evolved from ancestral ones
2. evolution occurs by means of natural selection
what is adaption?
the organisms that are best fit to survive
what is the fossil record?
the evidence that supports the theory of evolution that consists of ancient remnants
animals with backbones
what is biogeography?
the geographical distribution of plants and animals
what is comparative anatomy?
the comparison of organisms structures
what is comparative embryology?
the comparison of organisms embryos
what is molecular biology?
biology at the molecular level
what is an example of evolution occurring today?
antibiotic resistant bacteria
what is taxonomy?
study of scientific classification that is grouped based on similarities and differences
what are the broadest units of classification in taxonomy?
what are the five kingdoms?
animal, plant, monera (bacteria), protist (algae) and fungi (mold, yeast)
what are the six specific classifications in taxonomy?
phylum, class, order, family, genus and species
how is the scientific name made up in taxonomy?
genus and species
when water is the same amount outside a cell than it is inside it is called...
when the solute is more concentrated outside the cell than inside it is called...
when the solute concentration is lower than the inside of the cell it is called...
what is filtration?
the movement of water and solutes through the membrane by pressure
what are autotrophs?
organisms that produce their own food from inorganic substances
what are heterotrophs?
consumers of plants and animals
what are primary consumers?
herbivores or omnivores
what are secondary consumers?
carnivores or omnivores that eat herbivores
what are trophic levels of an ecosystem?
how organisms meets it nutritional needs
what is a food chain?
the path along which food is transferred from level to level
what is the interrelationship of many food chains
what are decomposers?
consume nonliving organic material and release inorganic material
what is a biotic factor?
living parts of the ecosystem
what is a abiotic factor?
nonliving influences such as temperature
what is symbiosis?
separate species living together
what is the symbiosis in which one organism is harmed and one is benefiting?
what is commensalism?
one species benefits and one remains unaffected
what is mutualism?
a symbiosis in which both species benefit
what is a biosphere?
entire portion of our planet that is inhabited by living things in a variety of ecosystems and communities.
inside of a biosphere there are groups of ecosystems that are common to the various types of geographical areas, what are these geographical areas called?
what biome has little precipitation and are more arid than all other biomes?
what biome has a relatively constant temperature with constant daylight length throughout the year, high humidity and abundant rain?
tropical rain forest
what biome has air that contains enough moisture to support the growth of large trees and are found in the midlatitude regions of the world?
what biome is found at high and cool elevations and seasons consist of short summers and long chilly winters?
what biome is characterized by very cold temperatures and high altitude, trees can't grow here but bushes and shrub can
what is the process called where chlorophyll absorbs light energy in which the energy drives the synthesis of food molecules for plants
what is chlorophyll?
a pigment that is located in the chloroplast of plant cells
carbon dioxide + water + light energy -->
carbohydrates + oxygen (photo synthesis)
what covers the stem and leaves of a plant as a waxy layer that helps prevent water loss through evaporation?
what are the pores on plant leaves that allow carbon dioxide to enter and oxygen to be released during photosynthesis without losing too much water?
what part of flowering plants allow reproduction?
what part of a flower is in charge of encasing the flower before it blooms?
what are the petals useful for?
what is present in the middle of petals? (flower)
stamen and pistils
what does the anther do(flower)?
place of pollen production
what does the stamen do(flower)?
consists of the filament
what does the filament do (flower)?
supports the anther
what does the pistil do (flower)?
consists of the stigma
what does the stigma do (flower)?
what does the style do (flower)?
leads to the ovary
what is the ovary of the flower?
contains ovules and where fertilization occurs
what happens after fertilization of the flower?
ovules within the ovary develop into seeds
after fertilization what happens to the walls of the flower ovary?
the ovary thickens to protect the seed
what is a fruit?
thick fleshy protective layer after flower fertilization
what are genes?
instructions for all living things that determines characteristics of an organism
what are the pairs that genes are found in?
what is it called when an individual has two identical genes for a trait?
who first explained and created the laws of dominance, segregation, and independent assortment?
what is the law of dominance?
the dominant trait is expressed and recessive is masked
what is it called when an individual has one dominant and one recessive trait?
what is a phenotype?
the physical trait expressed
what is the law of segregation?
(punnet square) when two heterozygous reproduce, the hidden trait appears 25% in the offspring
what is the law of independent assortment?
genes on different chromosomes are inherited independently of each other
what does it mean when traits are linked?
when genes for different traits are in the same chromosome
what is codominance?
when a heterozygote trait expresses a mixture of the two traits -- a red trait and a white trait mix to make RW
how many pairs of chromosomes are autosomes? (NONSEX)
what are sex linked traits?
genes that are only found on the X chromosome
what are the names of the two men who first came up with the model that explains the structure of DNA?
James Watson and Francis Crick
what are the thousand of units that make up DNA?
what is each nucleotide composed of?
phosphate group, deoxyribose, nitrogenous base
what is deoxyribose?
five carbon sugar