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Flashcards in Sciences paroles Deck (16)
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1

Différents types de signaux acoustiques
(3)

- signal périodique / pur
(cycles d'ondes se répètent parfaitement; sinusoidal)
- signal complexe périodique
(2+ fréquences reliées-multiples)
- signal apériodique
(onde se répète pas: bruit, fricative, etc.)

2

Que veut dire:
p
f
c / v
λ

p = période (en s)
f = fréquence (en Hz - cycle par seconde))
c / v = vitesse son dans milieu
λ = longueur d'onde

3

Décroissance typique d'amplitude par distance

Décroissance de 6dB à chaque dédoublement de distance si coefficient absorbtion de pièce est 1 (totale; anéchoique)

4

Analyse de Fourier?

- décomposition de l'amplitude de chaque fréquence qui compose le son
(p.ex. pour son périodique complexe - F0, 2F0, 3F0, etc.)

5

définition système acoustique

système modifie propriétés d'un signal

input --> system --> output

6

Elements of respiratory system

Pulmonary apparatus
- upper airway:
nasal cavities; oral cavity; pharynx
- lower airway:
larynx; trachea; bronchi; bronchioles; alveola; lungs

Chest wall

Abdomen
- thorax
rib cage; diaphragm

7

Hierarchy of bronchial tree
(4)

trachea -->

bronchi (2 primary; 5 secondary; 18-20 tertiary) -->

bronchioles (> terminal bronchioles > repiratory bronchioles) -->

alveolar sacs

8

site of gas exchange (w blood) in lungs

alveolar sacs
(exchange the air - both O2/CO2 - in capillaries

9

what keeps alveoli inflated

pulmonary surfactant

10

how to lungs and thorax work in unity?

- lungs can't expand/contract by themselves; need external force
- pleuras cover lung and inside of thorax
- pleural cavity filled with fluid
- intrapleural pressure is negative (due to lungs/thorax pulling opposite directions at rest) to "glue" lungs and thorax.

11

Boyle's Law

if volume of gas increases, pressure decreases

12

Law of gas movement

if difference in pressure between two linked spaces, gas will move from high pressure area to low pressure area until equilibrium

13

Difference between pulmonary volumes and capacity

pulmonary capacities:
combinations of pulmonary volumes

pulmonary volumes:
don't overlap

14

Names of
pulmonary volumes (4)
pulmonary capacities (4)

Pulmonary volumes
- tidal volume
(volume inspired in one respiratory cycle)
(resting tidal volume - at rest)
- inspiratory reserve volume
(volume that could go in lungs beyond TV)
- expiratory reserve volume
(volume that could go out of lungs beyond TV)
- residual volume
(volume left after forced exhale - quantity that can't be expired due to pneumothorax unity - dead air)

Pulmonary capacities:
- total capacity
TV + IRV + ERV + RV
- vital capacity
IRV + ERV + RV
- inspiratory capacity
TV + IRV
- functional residual capacity
ERV + RV

15

tidal volume needed as percentage of vital capacity for:
- life breathing (RTV)
- speech
- loud speech

life breathing = 10%
speech breathing = 20%
loud speech breathing = 40%

16

Differences between life breathing and breathing for speech (5)

where you breathe from
(nose for life VS mouth for speech)

inspiratory/expiratory ratio
(40:60 VS 10:90)

volume of air
(10% of TLC VS 20-25% for normal speech, 40% for loud speech)

muscular activity for expiration
(passive - elastic forces VS active)

shape of chest wall
(abdomen distal VS medial to rib cage) (pre-tuned for speech)