Section 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 1 Deck (231):
1

The process whereby sensory information is used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the environment

Internal Feedback

2

Refers to a person with a BMI of 25 - 29.9.

Overweight

3

Bisecting the body into top and bottom halves

Transverse plane

4

The ability of the nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making, which produces the appropriate response

Integrative function

5

How many phases does the Power Phase have?

One - Level 5: Power Level Training

6

Cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout the body

Peripheral nervous system

7

Training that promotes proper mechanics, reaction, and maintenance of posture during dynamic movements when the center fo gravity is moving

Speed, Agility, and Quickness (SAQ) training

8

The body's ability to differentiate between walking on concrete and walking on sand is an example of which of the following functions of the nervous system?
a) Arthrokinematic
b) Sensory
c) Motor
d) Integrative

b) Sensory

9

In which of the following scenarios would energy be mostly derived from anaerobic metabolism?
a) When an athlete begins an activity
b) When an athlete reduces the duration of an activity
c) When an athlete is in a steady state or at rest
d) When an athlete experiences temporary fatigue

a) When an athlete begins an activity

10

Positioned furthest from the center of the body, or point of reference

Distal

11

A client runs a mile in 6 min and 30 seconds. Which of the following energy systems is the client primarily using to produce energy?
a) Oxidative
b) ATP-PC
c) Anaerobic glycolysis
d) Phosphagen

a) Oxidative

12

The neuromuscular response to sensory information

Motor function

13

A force that produces rotation.

Torque

14

Muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint

Force-couple

15

Occurs when a muscle develops tension while lengthening

Eccentric muscle action

16

Positioned above the point of reference

Superior

17

Movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from an anterior position to a lateral position

Horizontal abduction

18

In which plane of motion does a hammer curl occur?
a) Transverse
b) Frontal
c) Sagittal
d) Anterior-posterior

c) Sagittal

19

Which term refers to the ability of muscles to exert maximal power in a minimal amount of time?
a) Pertubation
b) Sesorimotor control
c) Maximal tetanic tension
d) Rate of force production

d) Rate of force production

20

Set of two or more exercises that are performed back-to-back without any rest time between them

Superset

21

A muscle's ability to contract for an extended period

Muscular endurance

22

Training that focuses on the activation of overactive muscles to decrease possibility of injury as well as used for muscle growth

Resistance training

23

Movement in the frontal plane back toward the midline of the body

Adduction

24

The hormone that is produced during times of stress and is catabolic

Cortisol

25

Motor response to internal and external environmental stimuli

Motor behavior

26

A straightening movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments increases.

Extension

27

On the back of the body

Posterior (or dorsal)

28

Movement of the bones around the joints

Rotary motion

29

What does the blood do as protection as part of the support mechanism?

Clotting to avoid excessive bleeding and contains specialized immune cells to help fight diseases and sickness.

30

When an exercise is high intensity and last about 10 seconds, which of the following energy pathways is predominantly in use?
a) Aerobic
b) Glycolysis
c) ATP-PC
d) Oxidative

c) ATP-PC

31

Within what range is the typical resting heart rate of a human being?
a) 50 - 70 bpm
b) 90 - 100 bpm
c) 10 - 40 bpm
d) 70 - 80 bpm

d) 70 - 80 bpm

32

Sutures of the skull are examples of what joint type?

Nonsynovial joint

33

Which muscle action occurs when a muscle is exerting force greater than the resistive force, resulting in shortening of the muscle?
a) Isometric
b) Concentric
c) Isokinetic
d) Eccentric

b) Concentric

34

For which activity is the oxidative system primarily used?
a) Sprinting 40 yards
b) Executing a 1RM clean and jerk
c) Jogging for 30 minutes
d) Performing a 1RM squat

c) Jogging for 30 minutes

35

What does blood transport as part of the support mechanism?

Oxygen and nutrients to tissues, waste products from tissues, hormones to organs and tissues, and heat throughout the body.

36

What is the concept that integrates practice and experiences for a relatively permanent change in motor control processes?
a) Motor remodeling
b) Sensorimotor integration
c) Motor learning
d) Feedback learning

c) Motor learning

37

Which of the following is a small terminal branch of an artery, which ends in the capillaries?
a) Vein
b) Arteriole
c) Atrium
d) Venule

b) Arteriole

38

Junctions of bones, muscles, and connective tissue at which movement occurs. Also known as articulation.

Joints

39

Also known as the "master" gland

Pituitary gland

40

The two hormone that helps regulate energy and glucose metabolism in the body

Insulin and Glucagon

41

Smaller divisions of training progressions that fall within the three building blocks of training.

Phases of Training

42

The body's framework composed of bones and joints

Skeletal system

43

Transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another

Interneurons

44

Chronic metabolic disorder caused by insulin deficiency is

Diabetes mellitus

45

What Respiratory Quotient (RQ) indicates 100% carbohydrate fueling?

1.0

46

The breakdown of triglycerides into smaller subunits called free fatty acids (FFA) to convert FFAs into acyl-CoA molecules, which then are available to enter the Krebs cycle and ultimately lead to the production of ATP.

B-oxidation (beta-oxidation)

47

Vessels that transport blood from the capillaries toward the heart.

Veins

48

A state of lost physical fitnes, which may include muscle imbalances, decreased flexibility, and a lack of core and joint stability is

Deconditioned

49

The condition of being considerably overweight.

Obesity

50

The three oxidative or aerobic systems include:

Aerobic glycolysis;
The Krebs cycle; and
The electron transport chain (ETC)

51

Feeback used after the completion of a movement, to help inform the client about the outcome of his performance.

Knowledge of results

52

Information provided by some external source, such as health and fitness professional , videotape, mirror, or heart rate monitor, to supplement the internal environment

External Feedback

53

Which term refers to the assistance of amino acids in energy production during periods of starvation?
a) Kreb's cycle
b) The Cori cycle
c) Glyogenesis
d) Gluconeogenesis

d) Gluconeogenesis

54

Feedback that provides information about the quality of the movement during exercise.

Knowledge of performance

55

Fluid that circulates in the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins, carries nutrients and oxygen to all parts of the body, and also rids the body of waste products.

Blood

56

Bisecting the body into front and back halves

Frontal plane

57

How many phases does the Stabilization Phase have?

One - Level 1: Stabilization Endurance Training

58

Series of muscles that move the skeleton

Muscular system

59

What are the three levels of the OPT Model?

Stabilization, Strength, and Power

60

What is neuromuscular efficiency?
a) A muscle's ability to contract for an extended period of time
b) Ability of neuromuscular system to enable all muscles to efficiently work together in all planes of motion.
c) Ability of the body's stablizing muscles to provide force for movement
d) The cumulative input to the peripheral nervous system from internal organs

b) Ability of neuromuscular system to enable all muscles to efficiently work together in all planes of motion.

61

The shoulder is an example of what type of joint?

Ball-and-socket joint

62

The trunk rotation and golf swing are examples of movement within which plane?

Transverse plane

63

Vessels that transport blood away from the heart.

Arteries

64

Positioned on the same side of the body

Ipsilateral

65

Which mechanoreceptor helps prevent muscles from stretching too far too fast?
a) Intercalated disc
b) Muscle spindle
c) Ruffini endings
d) Golgi tendon organ

b) Muscle spindle

66

The carpometacarpal is an example of what joint type?

Saddle joint

67

Which of the following is true of type I, or slow twitch, muscle fibers?
a) They are faster than type II muscle fibers to produce maximal tension.
b) They contain more capillaries, mitrochondria, and myoglobin than type II muscle fibers.
c) They are larger in size that type II muscle fibers and are referred to as white fibers.
d) They have a low oxidative capacity and fatigue quickly.

b) They contain more capilaries, mitrochondria, and myoglobin than type II muscle fibers.

68

Extension of a joint beyond the normal limit or range of motion.

Hyperextension

69

Type II muscle fiber is also known as:

Fast-twitch

70

The rate of force production relates to the ability of muscles to do which of the following?
a) Exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time
b) React to a stimulus without hesitation
c) Release energy in a controlled manner
d) Decrease the reaction time of the muscle action spectrum

a) Exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time

71

A layer of connective tissue that is underneath the fascia and surrounds the muscle

Epimysium

72

The carpals fo the hand are examples of what type of joint?

Gliding joint

73

The main focus of Level 2: Strength Endurance Training is:

Enhance stabilization endurance while increasing prime mover strength.

74

The muscle under the lungs and is responsible for concentrically pulling the central tendon inferiorly, increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity

Diaphram

75

Deoxygenated blood is pumped from the right ventricle to the lungs through which of the following vessels?
a) Aortic valve
b) Aortic arch
c) Pulmonary arteries
d) Pulmonary veins

c) Pulmonary arteries

76

Which of the following is muscle that acts as the initial and main source of motive power?
a) Fixator
b) Neurtralizer
c) Primer mover
d) Antagonist

c) Prime mover

77

Training of the body that integrates stretches to produce maximum extensibility of tissues

Flexibility training

78

The position with the body erect with the arms at the sides and the palms forward

Anatomic position

79

The rate at which the heart pumps

Heart rate

80

WIth which of the following terms is eccentric motion synonymous?
a) Deceleration
b) Constant length
c) Constant force
d) Acceleration

a) Deceleration

81

What is the body's motor response to internal and external environmental stimuli called?
a) Motor behavior
b) Arthrokinematics
c) Homeostasis
d) Force-couple

a) Motor behavior

82

On the front of the body

Anterior (or ventral)

83

The process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body.

Diffusion

84

Joints that are held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movement in the body

Synovial joints

85

The functional unit of muscle that produces muscular contraction and consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin

Sarcomere

86

A person who is 30 pounds over the recommended weight for their height

Obesity

87

Portion of the skeletal system that consists of the skull, rib cage, and vertebral column

Axial skeleton

88

The deepest layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual muscle fibers

Endomysium

89

The resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length

Length-tension relationship

90

Which of the following involves performing exercises in a superset sequence?
a) Speed Endurance Training
b) Aerobic Endurance Training
c) Anaerobic Endurance Training
d) Strength Endurance Training

d) Strength Endurance Training

91

The main focus of Level 3: Hypertrophy Training is:

Maximal muscle growth (bodybuilding)

92

Rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body

Internal rotation

93

Which of the following is true of skeletal muscle?
a) Skeletal muscle fibers are shorter than cardiac muscle fibers
b) Skeletal muscle fibers are more tightly connected than cardiac muscle fibers
c) It is composed of intercalated discs
d) It is a voluntary muscle

d) It is a voluntary muscle

94

Positioned near the middle of the body

Medial

95

The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense body position and limb movement

Proprioception

96

Movement in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body

Abduction

97

The main focuses of Level 1: Stabilization Endurance level are?

Muscular endurance and neuromuscular efficiency.

98

Is composed of skeletal structures (bones) and soft tissues (muscles) that work together to allow proper respiratory mechanics to occur and help pump blood back to the heart during inspiration.

Respiratory pump

99

The amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction.

Stroke volume

100

Chemical messengers that cross the neuromuscular junction (synapse) to transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle

Neurotransmitters

101

Which systems accomplish human movement through their functional integration?
a) Muscular, nervous, and skeletal systems
b) Digestive, endocrine, and renal systems
c) Integumentary, exocrine, and circulatory systems
d) Cardiac, respiratory, and lymphatic systems

a) Muscular, nervous, and skeletal systems

102

The ability of the nervous system to sense changes in either the internal or external environment

Sensory function

103

The primary anabolic hormone

Growth hormone

104

Training that generates quick, powerful movements involving explosive concentric muscle contractions preceded by an eccentric muscle action

Plyometric (reactive) training

105

A bending movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments decreases.

Flexion

106

The combination and interrelation of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems?

Human movement system

107

Network of hollow tubes that circulates blood throughout the body

Blood vessels

108

Which of the following refers to vessels that transport blood from the capillaries toward the heart?
a) Arterioles
b) Veins
c) Carotids
d) Arteries

b) Veins

109

Positioned toward the outside of the body

Lateral

110

The ability of the neuromuscular system to enable all muscles to efficiently work together in all planes of motion

Neuromuscular efficiency

111

Cartilage that covers the articular surfaces of bones

Articular (hyaline) cartilage

112

Bones in the respiratory pump

Sternum, ribs, vertebrae

113

Refers to a person with a BMI of 30 or greater

Obesity

114

The muscle that assists the prime mover in performing the movement is:

Synergist

115

Internal rotation refers to the rotation of a joint in which of the following directions?
a) Toward the middle
b) Toward the upper extremity
c) Away from the right half
d) Away from the middle

a) Toward the middle

116

The smallest blood vessels, and the site of exchange of chemicals and water between the blood and tissues.

Capillaries

117

The system of organs (lungs and respiratory passageways) that collects oxygen from the external environment and transports it to the bloodstream.

Respiratory system

118

Which of the following focuses on increasing muscle size?
a) Flexibility training
b) Interval training
c) Hypertrophy training
d) Circuit training

c) Hypertrophy training

119

How many phases does the Strength Phase have?

Three - Level 2: Strength Endurance Training; Level 3: Hypertrophy Training; and Level 4: Maximum Strength Training

120

Provide a resting ground for muscles and protection of vital organs

Bones

121

A person who is 25 - 30 pounds over the recommended weight for their height.

Overweight

122

Integration of mother control processes through practice and experience, leading to a relatively permanent change in the capacity to produce skilled movements

Motor learning

123

What are the three support mechanisms of blood?

Transportation, Regulation, and Protection

124

A dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps (invests) all bone, except that of the articulating surfaces in joints, which are covered by a synovial membrane

Periosteum

125

Rotation of a joint away from the middle of the body

External rotation

126

Bisecting the body into right and left sides

Sagittal plane

127

Which of the following is a characteristic of muscle spindles?
a) They are sensitive to change in length of muscle and the rate of that change.
b) They are slow twitch, "red" muscle fibers with a high degree of mitrochondria.
c) They provide the ability to sense the relative position of adjacent parts of the body.
d) They transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another.

a) They are sensitive to change in length of muscle and the rate of change.

128

Cholesterol and triglycerides are known as

Blood lipids

129

The central cavity of bone shafts where marrow is stored

Medullar cavity

130

An unstable (yet controllable) physical situation in which exercises are performed that causes the body to use its internal balance and stabilization mechanisms.

Proprioceptively enriched environment

131

Positioned on the opposite side of the body

Contralateral

132

The superior chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into the ventricles.

Atrium

133

Which term refers to fibrous connective tissues that connect bone to bone and provide static and dynamic stability as well as input to the nervous system?
a) Dendrites
b) Ligaments
c) Effectors
d) Tendons

b) Ligaments

134

Joint motion

Arthrokinematics

135

Alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint

Muscle imbalance

136

When should the three measurements for resting heart rate be taken for greatest accuracy?
a) At the same time each day upon waking
b) Five minutes apart
c) Immediate before bed
d) After working out

a) At the same time each day upon waking

137

What may be the best measure of cardiorespiratory fitness?
a) Maximal Oxygen Consumption
b) Stroke volume
c) Maximal lung capacity
d) End-diastolic volume

a) Maximal oxygen consumption

138

The muscle that opposes the prime mover is:

Antagonist

139

Training that focuses on building stability of Lumbo Pelvic Hip Complex (LPHC) and progressing to powerful movements.

Core training

140

Which of the following is a primary focus of exercising in the Stabilization level of training?
a) Muscular elasticity
b) Muscular extensibility
c) Muscular degeneration
d) Muscular endurance

d) Muscular endurance

141

The process of actively or passively relaxing the inspiratory muscles to move air out of the body.

Expiration

142

The very small veins that connect capillaries to the larger veins.

Venules

143

What is the primary cause of musculoskeletal degeneration in the adult population?
a) Low-back pain
b) Spina bifida
c) High blood sugar level
d) Vitamin K deficiency

a) Low-back pain

144

Training that involves and places stress on the cardiorespiratory system

Cardiovascular training

145

The science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these forces

Biomechanics

146

The use of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the human movement system in motor learning

Feedback

147

Which of the following energy pathways is used for activities lasting between 30 and 50 seconds?
a) Kreb's cycle
b) Glycolysis
c) ATP-CP
d) Oxidative

b) Glycolysis

148

Primary connective tissue that connects bones together and provides stability, input to the nervous system, guidance, and the limitations of joint movement

Ligament

149

Muscle fiber type that is characterized as having less capillaries, mitrochondria, and myoglobin.

Type II

150

Type I muscle fiber is also known as:

Slow-twitch

151

What is the term for the production of force when a muscle is shortening?
a) Isokinetic
b) Concentric
c) Isometric
d) Eccentric

b) Concentric

152

A high-energy compound occuring in all cells from the which adenosine triphosphate (APT) is formed

Adenosine diphosphate

153

Receptors sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change

Golgi tendon organs (GTO)

154

The muscle that stabilizes during the movement is:

Stabilizer

155

Positioned below the point of reference

Inferior

156

Adduction is a movement back toward the midline of the body in which of the following planes?
a) Sagittal plane
b) Frontal plane
c) Transverse plane
d) Median plane

b) Frontal plane

157

BMI (metric) =

Weight (kg) / height (m) 2

158

Occurs when a muscle is exerting force greater than the resistive force, resulting in a shortening of the muscle

Concentric muscle action

159

The muscle that acts as the initial and main source of motive power

Prime mover

160

Muscle fiber type that is characterized as having more capillaries, mitrochondria, and myoglobin.

Type I

161

The portion of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord

Central nervous system

162

What is a life-sustaining fluid that supplies the body's organs and cells with oxygen and nutrients and helps regulate body temperature, fight infections, and remove waste products?
a) Exudate
b) Bile
c) Rheum
d) Blood

d) Blood

163

Which of the following is true of glycogen?
a) It is the chemical or substrate form in which most fat exists.
b) It is a complex carbohydrate that can be rapidly broken down into glucose
c) It is a form of glucose storage predominantly in the epidermal cells
d) It is used by the body during short-duration, low intensity activities

b) It is a complex carbohydrate that can be rapidly broken down into glucose.

164

The squat and the bicep curl are examples of movement within which plane?

Sagittal plane

165

The elbow is an example of what joint type?

Hinge joint

166

Positioned nearest the center of the body, or point of reference

Proximal

167

A motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates

Motor unit

168

What refers to a position relatively closer to the midline of the body?
a) Medial
b) Superior
c) Anterior
d) Distal

a) Medial

169

In which of the following structures are water and chemicals exchanged between the blood and tissues?
a) Capillaries
b) Venules
c) Sinoatrial node
d) Atrioventricular node

a) Capillaries

170

Which of the following consists of a series of irregularly shaped bones divided into five different categories depending on where they are located in the backbone?
a) Medullar cavity
b) Articular cartilage
c) Vertebral column
d) Ephiphyseal plate

c) Vertebral column

171

Connective tissues that attach muscle to bone and provide an anchor for muscles to produce force

Tendons

172

The contraction of a muscle generated by neural stimulation

Neural activation

173

The inferior chamber of the heart that receives blood from its corresponding atrium and, in turn, forces blood into the arteries.

Ventricle

174

Muscles in the respiratory pump (inspiratory muscles)

Diaphram, external intercostals, scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis minor.

175

The highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion

Maximal oxygen consumption (VOmax)

176

Transmit nerve impulses from effector sites (such as muscles and organs) via receptors to the brain and spinal cord.

Sensory (afferent) neurons

177

The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense body position and limb movement.

Proprioception

178

What Respiratory Quotient (RQ) indicates 100% fat fueling?

0.7

179

The side lateral raise and the side lunge are examples of movement within which plane?

Frontal plane

180

Describes how thick and thin filaments within the sarcomere slide past one another, shortening the entire length of the sarcomere and thus shortening the muscle and producing force

Sliding Filament Theory

181

Which of the following is a characteristic of joint receptors in the human body?
a) They respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration of joints
b) They are known as the "soma" and process information from dendrites.
c) They relay information from the joint sites back to the brain via efferent neurons.
d) They are responsible for joint injuries resulting from extreme joint positions.

a) They respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration of joints.

182

Heart rate x stroke volume, the overall performance of the heart.

Cardiac output

183

Portion of the skeletal system that includes the upper and lower extremities

Appendicular skeleton

184

The process of actively contracting the inspiratory muscles to move air into the body.

Inspiration

185

The concept where moving one joint affects other joints

Kinetic chain

186

A small mass of specialized cardiac muscle fibers, located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart, that receives heartbeat impulses from the sinoatrial node and directs them to the walls of the ventricles.

Atrioventricular node

187

A conglomeration of billions of cells specifically designed to provide a communication network within the human body

Nervous system

188

True or False: Type IIx fatigues faster than Type IIa muscle fiber?

True. Type IIx muscle fiber has low oxidative capacity.

189

Type IIa muscle fiber is also known as:

Intermediate fast-twitch

190

Receptors surrounding a joint that respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration of the joint

Joint receptors

191

Small terminal branches of an artery, which end in capillaries

Arterioles

192

Groups of muscles that are recruited by the central nervous system to provide movement

Muscle synergies

193

What does blood regulate as part of the support mechanism?

Body temperature and acid balance

194

Adduction of scapula; shoulder blades move toward the midline

Scapular retraction

195

Movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from a lateral position to an anterior position.

Horizontal adduction

196

What are responsible for sensing distortion in body tissues and are located in muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joint capsuels?
a) Osmoreceptors
b) Chemoreceptors
c) Photoreceptors
d) Mechanoreceptors

d) Mechanoreceptors

197

Joints that do not have a joint cavity, connective tissue, or cartilage

Nonsynovial joints

198

The main focus of Level 4: Maximum Strength Training is:

Maximal prime mover strength.

199

The functional unit of the nervous system

Neuron

200

A specialized area of cardiac tissue, located in the right atrium of the heart, which initiates the electrical impulses that determine the heart rate, often termed the pacemaker for the heart.

Sinoatrial (SA) node

201

BMI (English) =

703 x weight (lb) / height (in) 2

202

Abduction of scapula; shoulder blades move away from the midline

Scapular protraction

203

The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense position and limb movements

Proprioception

204

The connective tissue that surrounds fascicles

Perimysium

205

Ability of muscles to exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time

Rate of force production

206

In the endocrine system, which of the following secretes hormones such as corticosteroids and catecholamines in response to stress?
a) Hypothalamus
b) Thyroid gland
c) Adrenal gland
d) Pineal gland

c) Adrenal gland

207

The change in motor skill behavior over time through the lifespan

Motor development

208

Downward (inferior) motion of the scapula

Scapular depression

209

The two catecholamines are

epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine

210

The average stroke volume is

70 ml

211

Receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change

Muscle spindles

212

How does metabolism behave during EPOC?
a) Remains elevated
b) Increases
c) Remains unaffected
d) Fluctuates

a) Remains elevated

213

The main focus of Level 5: Power Training is:

Development of speed and power.

214

According to the Optimum Performance Training (OPT) model, which of the following is a goal fo Maximal Strength Phase of training?
a) Decrease metabolic demand
b) Increase the amount of fat loss
c) Increase peak force production
d) Decrease the volume of training

c) Increase peak force production

215

During glycolysis, in the presence of oxygen, pyruvic acid is converted into which important molecule in metabolism?
a) Acetyl coenzyme A
b) Adenosine diphosphate
c) Propinyl coenzyme A
d) Glucose-6-phosphate

a) Acetyl coenzyme A

216

Which term refers to an imaginary bisector that divides the body into front and back halves?
a)Transverse plane
b) Sagittal plane
c) Axial plane
d) Frontal plane

d) Frontal plane

217

Transmit nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to effector sites

Motor (efferent) neurons

218

The prime mover is the _________ in the movement.

Agonist

219

Resting oxygen consumption is approximately how many mL of oxygen per kilogram body weight per minute?
a) 35.0 mL
b) 0.35 mL
c) 350 mL
d) 3.5 mL

d) 3.5 mL

220

Which of the following best defines muscle imbalance?
a) Alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint
b) The body seeking the path of least resistance during functional movement patterns
c) Exertion of more force by a muscle than what is being placed on it
d) Synergists taking over the function of a weak or inhibited prime mover

a) Alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint

221

The three metabolic pathways in which cells can generate APT

The APT-PC system;
The glycolytic system (glycolysis); and
The oxidative system (oxidative phosphorylation)

222

What usually happens after 90 minutes of exercise?
a) The oxidation of proteins predominates as the primary energy source
b) The majority of muscle glycogen stores are depleted
c) The amount of stored adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the body increases
d) The amount of available fuel for exercise from fats is exhausted

b) The majority of muscle glycogen stores are depleted

223

The cooperation of the nervous and muscular systems in gathering and interpreting information and executing movements

Sensorimotor integration

224

Scientific name for the tailbone

Coccyx

225

The knee is an example of what joint type?

Synovial joint, Condyloid joint

226

Upward (superior) motion of the scapula

Scapular elevation

227

How the central nervous system integrates internal and external sensory information with previous experiences to produce a motor response

Motor control

228

The state in which the body's metabolism is elevated after exercise

Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)

229

Training that promotes the maintenance of proper body mechanics to help minimize the possibility of injury

Balance training

230

A state of lost physical fitness, which may include muscle imbalances, decreased flexibility, and a lack of core and joint stability.

Deconditioned

231

Energy storage and transfer unit within the cells of the body

Adenosine triphosphate