Flashcards in Section F Deck (56):
Described cancer of the scrotum, which was attributed to chronic exposure to soot (soot-wart)
Demonstrates that exposure of rats to x rays could cause cancer
Yamagiwa and Ichikawa
Produced skin cancer; exposed rabbit ears to coal tar
Isolated highly carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons from coal tar
Described bladder cancer in aniline dye workers
Showed that 2-Napthylamine caused cancer of the bladder when administered to dogs
What is a cancer-inducing agent in the liver?
aflatoxin, which is from the fungus Aspergillus flavus
Which cancer is more common in Asia/central Africa? Why?
Liver cancer due to food contamination by aflatoxin
Which type of cancer is more common in North America, Europe and Australia?
Colon-rectal cancer due to diets high in saturated fat, low in fibre, fruit/vegetables
What are the two highest causes of cancer deaths (in Canada)?
Tobacco and nutrition
What type of cancers may smoking cause?
Lung, upper respiratory, esophagus, bladder and pancreas
Smokers are up to _ times more likely to develop cancer of the lung than non-smokers.
What is the latent period between smoking and lung cancer?
What diet factors increase the risk of colon/rectal/prostate cancer?
Excessive saturated fat and red meat
What diet factors increase the risk of stomach cancer?
High salt intake
Which viruses cause liver cancer?
Hepatitis B and hepatitis C (cause 80% of cases)
How do viruses cause cancer?
Invade the living cells of a host and utilize the host cell's DNA-synthesizing and protein-synthesizing machinery to make copies of themselves
Which cancer is caused by HPV?
Which cancer is caused by HIV
What is a risk factor of the Epstein-Barr virus?
Which bacterium is associated with stomach cancers?
Cancer caused by arsenic? (2)
Cancer caused by asbestos? (1)
Cancer caused by benzene? (1)
Cancer caused by diesel exhaust? (1)
Cancer caused by formaldehyde? (1)
Cancer caused by man-made mineral fibres? (1)
Cancer caused by hair dye? (1)
Cancer caused by ionizing radiation? (1)
Cancer caused by mineral oils? (1)
Cancer caused by non-arsenical pesticides? (1)
Cancer caused by painting materials? (1)
Cancer caused by polychlorinated biphenyls? (2)
Cancer caused by radon? (1)
Cancer caused by soot? (1)
Where are carcinogens activated? How?
In the body; undergo metabolic activation by drug metabolizing enzymes
What are the three categories of carcinogens?
Initiators, promoters and progressors
Describe the action of an initiator carcinogen.
Damage genes involved in control of cell division and facilitate the division and proliferation of cells
Describe the action of a promoter carcinogen.
Do not damage genes but selectively enhance the growth of cancer cells (or precursors)
Describe the action of a progressor carcinogen?
Allow the rapid growth of tumours once they are established
What is the Delaney amendment?
An act that prohibits the use in food of any substance that has been shown at any dose to produce cancer in experimental animals (US, 1958)
Employs a mutant Salmonella typhimurium that lost the ability to make histidine; in a histidine-free medium cannot grow unless exposed to a mutagenic chemical
What are the six categories of cancer treatment?
Surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, biological therapies, hormone blocking/supplementing therapies and bone marrow transplantation
What are the goals of cancer chemotherapy? (5)
Cure, prolong survival, relieve symptoms, psychological support and clinical research
What is the mechanism of chemotherapy action?
Inhibit protein synthesis, DNA synthesis or cell division
Which normal cells are affected by chemotherapy?
Bone marrow (RBCs, WBCs, platelets), GI tract, hair root cells
What is the rationale for combination chemotherapy?
Cancer cells more vulnerable when attacked in multiple ways, and the drugs can be combined to achieve certain toxicities
Name the 6 classes of drugs employed in chemotherapy.
Alkylating agents, antimetabolites, natural products, antibiotics, hormones, biologicals and misc.
What are main cancer affecting women? men?
Women - breast, colon
Men - prostate, colon
Name a chemotherapeutic alkylating agent.
Name a chemotherapeutic antimetabolite.
Name a chemotherapeutic natural product.
Vincristine (Periwinkle) and Paclitaxel (Taxol; Yew)
Name a chemotherapeutic antibiotic.
Name a chemotherapeutic hormone
Name a biological chemotherapeutic technique.