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Flashcards in Section F Deck (56):
1

Percival Pott

Described cancer of the scrotum, which was attributed to chronic exposure to soot (soot-wart)

2

Clunet

Demonstrates that exposure of rats to x rays could cause cancer

3

Yamagiwa and Ichikawa

Produced skin cancer; exposed rabbit ears to coal tar

4

Kennaway

Isolated highly carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons from coal tar

5

Rehm

Described bladder cancer in aniline dye workers

6

Hueper

Showed that 2-Napthylamine caused cancer of the bladder when administered to dogs

7

What is a cancer-inducing agent in the liver?

aflatoxin, which is from the fungus Aspergillus flavus

8

Which cancer is more common in Asia/central Africa? Why?

Liver cancer due to food contamination by aflatoxin

9

Which type of cancer is more common in North America, Europe and Australia?

Colon-rectal cancer due to diets high in saturated fat, low in fibre, fruit/vegetables

10

What are the two highest causes of cancer deaths (in Canada)?

Tobacco and nutrition

11

What type of cancers may smoking cause?

Lung, upper respiratory, esophagus, bladder and pancreas

12

Smokers are up to _ times more likely to develop cancer of the lung than non-smokers.

8

13

What is the latent period between smoking and lung cancer?

20 years

14

What diet factors increase the risk of colon/rectal/prostate cancer?

Excessive saturated fat and red meat

15

What diet factors increase the risk of stomach cancer?

High salt intake

16

Which viruses cause liver cancer?

Hepatitis B and hepatitis C (cause 80% of cases)

17

How do viruses cause cancer?

Invade the living cells of a host and utilize the host cell's DNA-synthesizing and protein-synthesizing machinery to make copies of themselves

18

Which cancer is caused by HPV?

Cervical

19

Which cancer is caused by HIV

Kaposi's sarcoma

20

What is a risk factor of the Epstein-Barr virus?

Cancer

21

Which bacterium is associated with stomach cancers?

Helicobacter pylori

22

Cancer caused by arsenic? (2)

Lung, skin

23

Cancer caused by asbestos? (1)

Lung

24

Cancer caused by benzene? (1)

Leukemia

25

Cancer caused by diesel exhaust? (1)

Lung

26

Cancer caused by formaldehyde? (1)

Nose

27

Cancer caused by man-made mineral fibres? (1)

Lung

28

Cancer caused by hair dye? (1)

Bladder

29

Cancer caused by ionizing radiation? (1)

Bone marrow

30

Cancer caused by mineral oils? (1)

Skin

31

Cancer caused by non-arsenical pesticides? (1)

Lung

32

Cancer caused by painting materials? (1)

Lung

33

Cancer caused by polychlorinated biphenyls? (2)

Liver, skin

34

Cancer caused by radon? (1)

Lung

35

Cancer caused by soot? (1)

Skin

36

Where are carcinogens activated? How?

In the body; undergo metabolic activation by drug metabolizing enzymes

37

What are the three categories of carcinogens?

Initiators, promoters and progressors

38

Describe the action of an initiator carcinogen.

Damage genes involved in control of cell division and facilitate the division and proliferation of cells

39

Describe the action of a promoter carcinogen.

Do not damage genes but selectively enhance the growth of cancer cells (or precursors)

40

Describe the action of a progressor carcinogen?

Allow the rapid growth of tumours once they are established

41

What is the Delaney amendment?

An act that prohibits the use in food of any substance that has been shown at any dose to produce cancer in experimental animals (US, 1958)

42

Ames test

Employs a mutant Salmonella typhimurium that lost the ability to make histidine; in a histidine-free medium cannot grow unless exposed to a mutagenic chemical

43

What are the six categories of cancer treatment?

Surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, biological therapies, hormone blocking/supplementing therapies and bone marrow transplantation

44

What are the goals of cancer chemotherapy? (5)

Cure, prolong survival, relieve symptoms, psychological support and clinical research

45

What is the mechanism of chemotherapy action?

Inhibit protein synthesis, DNA synthesis or cell division

46

Which normal cells are affected by chemotherapy?

Bone marrow (RBCs, WBCs, platelets), GI tract, hair root cells

47

What is the rationale for combination chemotherapy?

Cancer cells more vulnerable when attacked in multiple ways, and the drugs can be combined to achieve certain toxicities

48

Name the 6 classes of drugs employed in chemotherapy.

Alkylating agents, antimetabolites, natural products, antibiotics, hormones, biologicals and misc.

49

What are main cancer affecting women? men?

Women - breast, colon
Men - prostate, colon

50

Name a chemotherapeutic alkylating agent.

Mechlorethamine

51

Name a chemotherapeutic antimetabolite.

Methotrexate

52

Name a chemotherapeutic natural product.

Vincristine (Periwinkle) and Paclitaxel (Taxol; Yew)

53

Name a chemotherapeutic antibiotic.

Doxorubicin

54

Name a chemotherapeutic hormone

Prednisone, tamoxifen

55

Name a biological chemotherapeutic technique.

Blocking cytokines

56

Procarbazine?

Is a chemotherapy drug; acts by damaging DNA