Flashcards in Section One - Food, Nutrition And Health Deck (100):
What do we get proteins from?
Meat, fish, dairy products, nuts, seeds and beans.
What do we need proteins for?
Growth: From childhood to adulthood. For the growth of hair as well as nails and muscle mass.
Repair: For the repair of muscles, tissues and organs if there is illness or injury.
Maintenance: It is used to make enzymes for digestion and antibodies to prevent illness.
What are proteins made of?
What amino acids does our body make?
Our body can make non-essential amino acids
What amino acids do we have to eat?
We have to eat essential amino acids
What are high biological value proteins?
They contain all of the essential amino acids we need. They're found primarily in animal sources such as meat, fish, poultry. Soya beans and quinoa are plant based HBV foods.
What are low biological value proteins?
They are missing one or more of the essential amino acids. They're only found in plant sources such as peas, lentils and nuts.
What is protein complementation?
If we don't get enough HBV protein we have to combine LBV proteins to get all the amino acids we need. For example hummus and pitta contain all the amino acids we need when eaten together.
Describe 3 different groups of people who need different amounts of protein in their diet.
Growing children need a greater amount of protein relative to size and muscle mass
Physically active children need more protein for muscle growth and repair
Pregnant women need more protein to help the baby grow (6g more)
What are the consequences of too much protein in the diet?
Too much protein puts strain on the liver and kidneys which process proteins.
What are the consequences of having too little proteins?
-Growth is slowed
-Hair, skin and nails grow slowly so they can get into poor conditions
-The immune system doesn't work as well without proteins so wounds take longer to heal and diseases are caught easier.
-People struggle to digest food so nutrients is lost
-Can lead to oedema, a build up of fluid in the body. Mainly around feet.
-In severe cases a disease called kwashiorkor can develop. Swelling of the abdomen.
Name and describe two alternative proteins
Soya - HBV protein. Used to make milk or can be processed into tofu.
TVP- (textured vegetable protein) is also made from soya beans. The soya flour can be baked into a meat substitute
Why do we need fats?
-They provide a lot of energy
-Source of vitamins A and D
-Source of essential fatty acids
-Fat under our skin keeps us warm and protect our bones and organs
-Used to make cholesterol
Describe saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.
Saturated acids only have c-c bonds
Unsaturated acids have at least one c=c bond.
Our body breaks down fat into fatty acids. The ratio of saturated fats to unsaturated fats determines if it will be a saturated or unsaturated fat.
Describe Saturated fat.
They are classified as unhealthy fats.
They're solid at room temp, come from animal sources and coconut milk.
Too much can increase cholesterol levels in the blood which can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Describe unsaturated fats.
They are usually healthier
They're soft and liquid and come from vegetable sources
Replacing the saturated fats in your diet has been shown to lower blood cholesterol.
What are monounsaturated fats?
They contain one C=C double bond in their carbon chains
Found in olive oil, peanut butter and avocados.
What are polyunsaturated fats?
They contain more than one C=C bond
Found in sesame oil, soybean oil, seeds and oily fish
What are omega-3 fatty acids and what do they do?
Our bodies cant produce Omega-3 essential fatty acids, they are found in foods such as oily fish and seeds. They help our brains function and may reduce the risk of heart disease.
What are omega-6 fatty acids and what do they do?
Our body cant produce omega-6 fatty acids, they are found in foods such as chicken, nuts and veg oil. They help reduce cholesterol and reduce inflammation
What portion of our daily food energy should come from fats?
No more than 35% with no more than 11% coming from saturated fats.
What can an excess of fat in our diet do to our body?
-Increase in Blood cholesterol, causing high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease
What can an deficiency of fat in our diet do to our body?
-Less vitamin A and D are absorbed by the body.
-If there is also a lack of carbs in the diet the body will use fat stores, not eating fat can lead to weight loss.
-Less body fat means less insulation
-less fat to protect body from knocks
Describe starch and what it can be found in.
-Starch can be found in foods such as potatoes, bread, pasta, rice and cereals as well as fruit and veg.
-Lots of B vitamins, Iron and calcium
-Wholegrain starch foods have high fibre content
Describe sugar and what it can be found in.
Glucose and fructose can be found naturally in fruits and vegetables or can be added in manufactured foods and drinks.
Empty calories as it has no nutritional benefits other than energy.
What are the two main types of carbohydrates?
Starch and Sugar
What are simple carbohydrates and what can they be divided into?
An example of a simple carb is sugar. They can be divided into monosaccharides and disaccharides.
They are rapidly digested in the body causing a spike in blood sugar.
What are monosaccharides?
They are the most basic of sugar molecules e.g. glucose and fructose
What are disaccharides?
They are made up of two monosaccharides e.g. sucrose is made from glucose and fructose
What are complex carbohydrates?
They are know as polysaccharides, they are made up of lots of monosaccharides joined together.
e.g. starches are made up of lots of glucose molecules
What is the glycemic index?
It rates carbs on how quickly they affect blood sugar levels.
High GI foods are digested quickly and cause a rise in blood sugar levels. (Watermelon, cornflakes, white bread)
Low GI foods are digested slowly and cause a rise in blood sugar levels. (Bread, pasta, porridge)
What happens if we eat too many carbohydrates?
-carbohydrates are converted into fats if we eat too many
-sugars are digested quickly meaning the energy they provide is ready to be used immediately
-too many sugars are bad for our teeth. Whole fruits are better than fruit juices
-rapid fluctuations in blood sugar can cause diabetes
What happens if we eat too little carbohydrates?
-causes our blood sugar levels to drop. Causing hunger, dizziness and tiredness
-the body will begin to break down fats
-if we also have a fat deficiency then our muscle begins to be broken down
What are the two fat soluble vitamins? And where are they found?
Vitamin A and D
They are found in fatty foods
What does vitamin A do for us? Where is it found?
Vitamin A is needed for good eyesight, growth, immune system and skin
The main source is retinol which is found in butter, oily fish and eggs but it can also be made from carotene found in orange or yellow fruit and veg
What are the problems with having too much vitamin A?
It can weaken bones. During pregnancy foods high in vitamin A- liver should be avoided
What are the problems with having too little vitamin A?
It can lead to night blindness, weaken immune system and stunt growth
What does vitamin A do for us? How do we get it?
It helps us absorb calcium
It is found in oily fish and egg yolk as well as when we are in the sun
What are the problems with having too much vitamin D?
It can mean you absorb too much calcium which can lead to kidney damage
What are the problems with having too little vitamin A?
Too little vitamin A can lead to bone disease like osteoporosis
What happens to the fat soluble vitamins that aren't used up by the body?
They are stored in fat tissue for future use it means we don't necessarily have to eat the same amount of vitamins daily.
What vitamins are water soluble?
B and C vitamins are water soluble
What does B1 (thiamin) do? What are its sources? What problems occur from having too little?
It helps the function of the nervous system and with Energy release from foods.
Sources are bread, pasta, rice, peas, eggs and liver
Too little can cause tiredness, weak muscle and beriberi
What does B2 (riboflavin) do? What are its sources? What problems occur from having too little?
It helps with the release of energy from foods and the repair of tissue
Sources include milk, eggs, cheese and leafy greens
Too little can cause dry skin, a sore throat and sores on the mouth
What does B3 (niacin) do? What are its sources? What problems occur from having too little?
Helps with energy release from foods and maintaining a healthy nervous system and skin
Sources are wheat, nuts, meat and fish
Too little causes pellagra
What does B9 (Folic acid) do? What are its sources? What problems occur from having too little?
Crucial for the growth of babies, it works with B12 to make red blood cells
Found in liver, peas and leafy greens
Too little Causes anaemia, tiredness and weak muscles and mouth sores
What does B12 (cobalamin) do? What are its sources? What problems occur from having too little?
Helps the nervous system and works with B9 to make red blood blood cells
Found in milk, eggs, meat and fish
To little Can cause tiredness and nerve damage in extreme cases. Vegans are most likely to suffer
What does Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) do? What are its sources? What problems occur from having too little?
Protects the body from infection and allergies, keeps blood vessels healthy and heals wounds as well as helping the body absorb iron
Found in citrus, tomatoes, green veg, potatoes and strawberries
Too little Causes anaemia, scurvy, it could also increase the chances of cancer
How should you prepare vegetables which contain water soluble vitamins?
When exposed to air veg starts losing vitaminC so use it quickly
Don't leave to stand in water because B and C dissolve in water
Steaming or microwaving is best
Don't peel as more nutrients is near the skin
Don't chop into small pieces as more surface area is exposed
What does Calcium do? What are its sources? What problems occur from having too much and too little?
Calcium is needed for strong bones and teeth, healthy nerves and muscle as well as for helping the blood clot
Its found in milk, cheese, tofu, bread, green leafy veg
Too much calcium could lead to a build up in the kidneys causing kidney stones
Too little calcium as a child can lead to osteoporosis and rickets as well as slowing down blood clotting
What does Iron do? What are its sources? What problems occur from having too much and too little?
It is needed to form part of haemoglobin
It is found in meat and dark green vegetables
Too much iron is toxic and causes stomach pains, nausea and constipation
Too little can cause anaemia
What does Potassium do? What are its sources? What problems occur from having too much and too little?
Potassium is needed for cardiovascular health and controlling the fluids in our body.
It is found in in fruit and veg, pulses, nuts and seeds
Too much can cause nausea p, stomach pain, weak muscles and an irregular heartbeat
Too little can cause an irregular heartbeat and paralysis or heart failure in severe cases
What does magnesium do? What are its sources? What problems occur from having too much and too little?
It is needed to release energy from our food and for healthy bones
Found in green leafy veg, nuts,seeds and dark choc
Too much can cause nausea and diarrhoea
Too little can cause nausea, lack of appetite and weak muscles
What does Flouride do? What are its sources? What problems occur from having too much and too little?
It strengthens teeth
Its found in fish, tea and dental products
Too much is toxic, leads to brown coloured teeth, bone problems and cancer
Too little leads to weak teeth
What does Iodine do? What are its sources? What problems occur from having too much and too little?
It is needed to make a select few hormones
Found in seafood, dairy and veg
A serious lack of iodine can cause goitre and complication in babies
What does Fibre do? What are its sources? What problems occur from having too little?
Its a carbohydrate that isn't digested, it keeps your digestive system working properly. It keeps your digestive system working properly and keeps food moving through it.
It is found in vegetables, fruit, bread, lentils, beans and nuts
Too little can cause constipation, bowel and colon cancer, heart disease and high blood pressure
What does Water do? What are its sources? What problems occur from having too much and too little?
Our bodies need water to:
Eliminate waste, control body temperatures and aid in the process of digestion
You get water from drinking anything, and eating almost anything.
Dehydration causes slower reactions and poor decision making, blood to thicken straining the heart and an increase in body temperature.
Too much water over hydration can cause headaches, nausea and confusion affecting the kidneys
According to the eat well chart how much fruit and veg is recommended to eat daily?
About 1/3 of your daily food intake
Aim to eat at least 5 portions of fruit and veg daily
According to the eat well chart how much starchy carbs is recommended to eat daily?
About 1/3 of your daily intake should be carbs
Higher fibre wholegrain options are better
Don't eat starchy foods in every meal e.g potatoes, wholegrain bread pasta and cereals
What does the eat-well chart recommend about oils and spreads?
Use unsaturated oils and spreads and not very often
What does the eat-well chart recommend about dairy products and alternatives?
Have some dairy products and try lower fat options e.g. skimmed milk and low fat cheese. Alternatives are better such as soy milk or rice based milks.
What does the eat-well chart recommend about beans, pulses, fish, meat and other protein?
Aim to eat two portions of fish a week (one oily)
Pulses are a good alternative to meat
Choose lean cuts of meat and eat less processed meats
What does the eat-well chart recommend about water?
Drink 6-8 glasses a day-hydration is part of a healthy diet
What does the eat-well chart recommend about sugary and fatty foods?
Eat less sugary salty and fatty foods
What should toddlers eat to remain healthy? What can the parents do to ensure they are getting the nutrients they need?
Toddlers should eat small meals frequently
300ml of milk a day is recommended
Toddlers should be frequently given new foods to try
What should children eat to remain healthy? What can the parents do to ensure they are getting the nutrients they need?
Children need more nutrients than adults proportional to body size
Good amounts of these nutrients are needed:
Protein- to help grow and repair the body
Carbs-energy for growth and physical activity
Fat- should be eaten in moderation
Calcium + vitamin D- healthy teeth and bone development
Eating habits of children should be similar to adults as children could pick up bad habits
What should teenagers eat to remain healthy?
Protein: to cope with growth spurts, boys need more
Iron + Vitamin C: girls lose iron in their period so need more than boys, vitamin C helps absorb the iron
Calcium + vitamin D the skeleton grows quickly during this time and this helps to grow the skeleton to adult size
What should middle age men do to ensure they stay healthy?
They should focus on sticking ti the eat well guide as growth and development stops.
Men need more calories than women as they are bigger, taller and have more lean muscle mass
Eat calcium and vitamin D as bone strength weakens later in life
What should middle age men do to ensure they stay healthy?
They should stick to the eat well guide as growth and development stops.
Iron is important as women continue to lose it through periods
Calcium and vitamin d are important as after menopause bone strength weakens
During pregnancy women should eat about 200 calories more and eat more folic acid as a lack could cause spina bifada
What should people in late adulthood do to remain healthy?
As we age muscle is replaced with fat, therefore we need less energy.
They need to eat less saturated fat as it is hard to get rid of in excess
Taste and smell change so meals must be altered to make them good
They must make sure they get enough:
-Calcium + Vitamin D to keep bones strong and prevent bone disease
-B12 to keep brain healthy and prevent memory loss
-Fibre to help digestion as the digestive system begins to weaken
-Vitamin A to keep eyesight good
-Vitamin D for inactive or immobile people
What are the boundaries for BMI in adults. (Obese or normal)?
18.25-25 is normal weight
25-30 is overweight
30-35 is obese
Above 35 is extremely obese
What are the causes of obesity?
If a person eats more calories than they burn off
Eating lots of food high in fat and sugar
Having a sedentary lifestyle
What are the health problems that come from obesity?
High blood pressure and high cholesterol increase the chance of cardiovascular disease
Risk of type 2 diabetes, liver disease and cancer
Breathing difficulties, tiredness and low self esteem are also common
What causes CHD?
Eating lots of saturated fats
Being physically inactive because exercise keeps the heart and cardiovascular system healthy.
High blood pressure
What are the health problems related to CHD?
Blood cannot pass your blood vessels efficiently, which can cause pain
Heart attacks and strokes
What is anaemia? What are the causes of anaemia?
People with anaemia have reduced amounts of red blood cells.
Not eating enough iron
Women lose iron in periods
Pregnant women lose iron to their baby during pregnancy
What are the health problems related to anaemia?
What is diabetes? What are the causes?
It is where the pancreas cont produce insulin or the body resists it.
Excessive sugar in our diet can lead to obesity leading to diabetes
What are the health problems associated with diabetes?
Poor eyesight, limb numbness, kidney failure and cardiovascular diseases
Feel tired and thirsty
Passing urine more often
What is rickets, how does it occur, what are the effects of it?
It means the bones are soft and weak.
This occurs in children if they don't get enough Vitamin D or Calcium
Rickets causes pain, increases chance of fracturing bones and can cause deformities, bowed legs
What is osteoporosis, how does it occur, what are the effects of it?
It is a bone disease which weakens bines and makes them brittle
Common in older people as bone density is lost naturally as we age, women after menopause loose density too
Eating foods rich in vitamin D and calcium prevent it
What are Dental caries, how does it occur, what are the effects of it?
Plaque is a sticky substance that contains lots of bacteria
Bacteria feed on sugars and creates acids that can destroy tooth enamel
Eating less sugar and brushing teeth with fluoride toothpaste twice daily prevents this
What is BMR and what factors affect a person BMR?
Basal metabolic rate is the smallest amount of energy needed for you to stay alive.
Factors that affect a persons BMR include:
Age- decreases as we get older due to reduction of muscle mass
Gender- women have lower because they have less muscle mass
Weight and height- heavier and larger bodies need more calories
Exercise- increasing muscle increases BMR
What is your PAL?
Your physical activity level is a measure of how active you are.
More active higher the PAL is
BMR x PAL = daily kcal needed
How can you modify a recipe to reduce salt content?
Don't use cured meats
Create own sauces and stocks
Use other seasonings to add flavours
How can you modify a recipe to increase fibre content?
Go for wholemeal bread, flour or pasta
Include more beans, vegetables and lentils
Keep skins on potatoes
How can you modify a recipe to reduce saturated fat content?
Use low fat spreads and vegetable oils
Eat lean cuts of meat, grill, bake or steam foods instead of frying or roasting
Allow fat to drain away when cooking
What are 4 ways to help control portion sizes?
One portion of meat should be roughly the size of your palm
One portion of cooked vegetables should be roughly the size of your fist
Use scoops to measure out the same portion of ingredients each time
Use cutters and dividers to separate pizza or cake
Give 3 meal ideas for children and explain the nutritional importance.
Baked fishcakes- protein
Carrots, peas- packed with Vitamin C
Mashed potato- a healthy alternative to chips, includes calcium from milk
Give 4 meal ideas for teenagers and explain the nutritional importance.
Grilled chicken breast- protein for rapidly growing bodies
Wholewheat couscous- lots of carbs and fibre, low in sat fat
Olives, spinach- iron for girls especially
Red pepper- vitamin C
Give 4 meal ideas for Elderly and explain the nutritional importance.
Lentil stew- protein and fibre for digestion
Sweet potato- lots of carotene for eyes
Soft tofu- easy to chew, good for bone strength
Wholemeal bread roll- fibre
What is lactose intolerance? suggest some alternatives.
Lactose is a type of sugar found in milk, they cant eat this type of sugar.
Substituting normal milk for soya or almond
Dairy products have lactose free alternatives
What is a nut allergy? suggest some alternatives.
They have to avoid foods with nuts in them or even traces of them
No need for substitution as they aren't vital
What is coeliac disease? suggest some alternatives.
They cant eat food with gluten, they must avoid wheat, barley and rye
Use alternative flours. Coconut or rice flour
What are the 4 variations of vegetarian?
Pescatarians- no meat but will eat fish and animal products
Lacto ovo-no meat no fish but will eat animal products
Lacto- no meat fish or eggs will eat milk and other dairy products
Vegans- no meat, fish or animal products
How can people with diabetes adjust there diet to control their blood sugar levels?
Avoid sugar or use natural sweeteners.
Use low GI foods such as brown rice or quinoa, they digest slow and release sugar over longer
How should people with anaemia alter their diet?
Include foods high in iron, dark meat and dark leaf green veg
Include foods in vitamin C tomatoes and citrus fruits
How should people with bone disease alter their diet?
Include foods high in calcium, milk cheese
Include foods high in vitamin D, tuna and salmon
How should people with dental caries alter their diet?
Use natural sugars
Use fluoridated water or unsweetened tea or coffee with meals