Flashcards in Security Assessment Deck (53):
What is a posture assessment
It is a thorough examination of each aspect to determine gow it might be compromised
-try to complete annually
What is a security audit?
Assessment performed orginaization accreddited by an agency that has security standards
What is a hacker?
Person who gains unauthorized access to systems
What is vulnerability?
Weakness of a system, process, or architecture
What is exploiting
Means of taking advantate of a vulnerability
What is 'zero-day exploit/attack'
Taking advantage of an undiscovered vulnerabilty
Most are well known
What are human associated security risks?
Consists of half of security vreaches
Eg, omission, ignorance, or error
Easiest way to circumvent network securty
What is social engineering?
Strategy yo gain access/ credentials
What is phishing?
Gaining sensitive info by posing as a trusted person in the organziation
What are layer 1 and 2 security risks?
- Wirless jamming
- RF emanation on a private wireless and copper media communications
- eaves dropping on connections to internet
-sniffing data on public wireless networks
- access to unused and unsecure ports
- arp table poisioning
- computes eith sensitive data connected to a publically accessable network
What are layer 3 -7 risks?
- Banner grabbing attack -malicuous use of network monitoring tools to inventory services running on servers
- session jacking - "man in the middle"
-invalid trust relationship, dhcp snooping
- nos backdoors
What are internet access risks
- Web browsing configured to permit scripts to access system
-use of insecure plug ins
-incompatibility with secure client software
Denial of service attack
What is distributes dos
Orchestrated through many sources called zombies
Denial of service attack
What is distributed reflection of dos
Bounced off of uninfected computers at the target
Many requests sent to comp with source ip spoofed to attack the target
Denial of service attack
What is permanent dos
Replaces the device firmware to permanently damage it
Whatbis a security policy
Minimizes exploits by communicating with, and managing users via a throughly planned policy
What is a policy?
- Identifies security goals, risks, authority levels, coordination and team members
- Define responsibility of each user and team member
And how to address security breaches
What are malware risks and infections
- malware software designed to intrudr upon or harm system
What are viruses
Replicated code that attaches to an existing code or data
What is Trojan horse
Disguises itself as something useful, but harms the system
What is a worm?
Runs independently, travelling b/w computers over the network
What are bots?
They run automatically in the system
What are boot sector viruses
Viruses embedded in disk boot sector
What are macro viruses?
Take form of an application macro
What are file infection viruses
Viruses thay corrupts and attaches to executable files
What are network viruses?
Propogate via network protocol
What is encryption stealth?
Some malware is encrypted
Disguised as legitimate programs to prevent detection
Changes characteristics on every infection using complicated algorithms
Lay dormant and activated on defined date
What are logic bombs?
Lay dormant and active on defined conditions
Visable symptoms of malware?
-unexplained size increases
-significant unexplained memory loss
-unusual error messages
- unexpected reboots
**usually discovered when damage is done
Often difficlt to find when system is running
What are the functions of anti virus software?
-scans data for signature of known malware
-checks integrity of files againstbknown good hash
- monitors unexpected file changes
- recieves regular updates to logic and malware signature
-reports valid malware instances
-quarentines to remove suspected or known malware
What are network design risks?
- breaches may occur due to poor network desgin
- Controll access points at every point where the trusted network connects to the public
- monitor and filter traffic on the lan to external connecting
- hide/mask internal hosts from external networks
What is scanning?
Technique used during posture assessment
Network mapper (nmap)
Scans large networks
Provides info about ports/ services running on network
Performs more sophisticated scans than namp -can check for default passwords
What are things you can restrain for loggin on the network
- The time, day, and duration
- Source address
Unsuccessful log in attempts (lockout)
What is device access control
Controls type and level of access granted to a device when it joins a network
-need predefined access policy
-non complaint devicr may be placef in quarantine until complaint
Traffic access control
Routers may filter traffic bewteen netwprl
Rules define permitted and denied traffic
Generally based on layer 3 and 4 rules
Eg wlan cant access internal network
What are fiewalls?
Generaly more sophisticated than traffic access control
- rules define permitted and denied rrafgic
Generally based on layer 3-7 rules
-used b/w public and dmz
And bma and intertior trusted networks
Often used between endpoint and server networks
What is a poxy server
Acts as an intermediary b/w ecternal amd internal network
-screens out all outgoing and incoming traffic
Whats a proxy server
Network gost ru ning
Application layer security
Appears on interal server to outside traffic
What is an intrision detection system
Detects suspicious network activity
Typically dedicated service
What is intrusion prevention service
Detects and reacts to suspicious network activity
Typically dedicated device
Prevents traffic flow
Security information and event management
Software that gathers analyzes amd reports on the data from network device logs
-routers, switches, ids, ips, os, databases can provide alerts
-can be used for compliance and audit monitoring and reporting
- May provide forensic analysis
What is a honey pot
Purposly vulnerable decoy designed to fool hackers and gaim info about their behaviours
What is honey net?
A network of honey pots
Network segment that isnt public or local
Proxies act on behalf of whole network to separate packets from internal hosts and external hosts
Proxy server- first recieves request, examines, breaks down and creates new packet to send to external server
What does an ip proxy do?
Hides ip addressed of all devices on the internal network by exchanging its ip addr for the address of any requesting station
What is a web proxy?
Handles http rquests on behalf 9f the sending work station
Browser gets request and sends it to proxy server,
Proxy changes the from address to its own network addresss and sends it to the internet web server
Rules to live by whej configuring ACL's
Deny any source address from your internal network
Deny any local host addresses (127.0.0.0/8)
Deny any reserved private addresses (RFC1918)
Deny any addresses in the ip multicast address range (126.96.36.199/4)