Security Governance and Risk Management - Domain 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Security Governance and Risk Management - Domain 3 Deck (77):




Business Model for Information Security

1. Organization Design/Strategy 2. People 3. Process 4. Technology


Security Governance

Corporate governance is the set of responsibilities and practices exercised by the board and executive management with the goal of providing strategic direction, ensuring that objectives are achieved, ascertaining that risks are managed appropriately and verifying that the enterprises resources are used responsibly.


Information Security Governance

1. Subset of corporate governance 2. Provides strategic direction for security activities 3. Ensure that objectives are achieved 4 Ensures that Information security risks are appropriately managed 5. Ensures the enterprises information resources ar used responsibly


Control Frameworks and methodologies (4)

1.Committe of Sponsoring Organizations (COSO) - managing risk 2. IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) 3. Control Objectives for Information and related Technology (COBIT) 4 ISO/IEC 27000 Series


Committee of Sponsoring Organizations (COSO)

Emphasis on identifying and managing risks


IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)

1. Emphasis on It services and IT service management 2. Can be used as a compliment to COBIT


Control Objectives for Information and related Technology (COBIT)

Acts as a model for IT governance and focuses more on operational goals and regulatory compliance


Cobit - PDCA Model

1. PLan - establish ISMS 2. Do - Implement and operate ISMS 3. Check monitor and review ISMS check 4. Act - maintain and improve ISMS



1. Control objectives for information related technology 2 Focuses on IT related process and provides a security management lifecycle 3 A process that subdivides IT into four domains- a. Plan and organize b. acquire and implement c. deliver and support d. monitor and evaluate


ISO 27000

glossary of Terms


ISO 27001

IS Managment Systems Requirements - employs the PDCA model to structure processes and reflects the principals set out in the OECD guidelines.


ISO 27002

Code of IS practice - basic outline of hundreds of potential controls and control mechanisms, which maybe implemented, in theory, subject to the guidance provided within ISO 27001.


ISO 27005

IS Risk Management - provides guidelines for information security risk management (ISRM) in an organization, specifically supporting the requirements of an information security management system.


ISO 27799

IS for Healthcare Organizations - defines guidelines to support the interpretation and implementation in health informatics of ISO 27002 and is a companion to that standard. It specifies a set of detailed controls for managing health information security and provides health information security best practices guidelines.


ISO 27001 Controls (11) -.-

1. Physical and environmental Sec. 2. Human resource Sec. 3. Organizing Information Security 4. Asset Management 5. Communications and operations Managment 6. Information Security Incident Managment 7. Business Continuity Managment 8. Security Policy 9. Access Control 10. Compliance 11 Information Systems Acquisition Development and Maintenance


Goals of a security model

Strategic goals - Overarching - supported by tactical and operational goals 2. tactical goals - mid-term - lay the necessary foundation to accomplish strategic goals 3. Operational goals - Day-to-Day - focus on productivity and task-oriented activities.


Due Care

1. Do the right thing to protect assets 2. Functional requirements


Due Diligence

1. To investigate actual threats and risks 2. Assurance requirements


Center of (ISC)2’s CBK: C-I-A Triad

1. Confidentiality - prevent unauthorized disclosure of sensitive information 2. Integrity - Prevent unauthorized modification of systems and information 3. Availability - prevent disruption of service and productivity


Confidentiality (opposite: disclosure)

1. Only authorized individuals, process or systems have access to information on a need to know basis 2. This level of access, also known as the principles of least privilege, is at the level necessary for the individual to do their job 3. Confidentiality ensures that the necessary level of security is enforced at each instance of data processing; while the data is at rest and while the data is in transit


Integrity (opposite: alteration)

1. This principle implies that data should be protected from intentional, unauthorized, and/or accidental changes. 2. Controls are put in place to ensure that information is only modified through approved and accepted practices 3. Hardware, software, and communication mechanisms should work in concert to maintain and process data correctly and to move data to intended destinations without unexpected alteration


Availability (opposite: destruction)

1. Availibity ensures reliability and timely access to data and resources to authorized individuals 2. The two primary areas affecting the availability of systems are (1) denial of service attacks (2) loss of service due to a disaster 3. Disaster recovery ensures that all or parts of information technology processing systems can be recovered. Disaster recovery and business continuity work together to minimize the impact of critical events.


Security Policy Document Relationships (think org chart)

Laws, regulations best practices (drivers) —> Program or Organizational policy (managements security statement) —> Functional Policies (managmements security directives) —> 1. Standards 2. Procedures 3. Baselines 4. Guidelines


Functions for Supporting Policies - Standards

Compulsory rules that dictate how hardware and software are to be used and expected behavior of employees - binding.


Functions for Supporting Policies - Baselines

A minimum level of security that is required throughout the organization - binding.


Functions for Supporting Policies - Procedures

Detailed step-by-step actions to be taken to achieve a specific task - binding.


Functions for Supporting Policies - Guidlines

Recommended actions and operational guides for users and staff members where standards do not apply - non-binding.


Asset Valuation

1. Acquisitionor development costs 2. Replacement costs 3. Maintenance and protection costs 4. Productivity and operational losses 5. Owners value 6. Outside valuation 7 liability - if the asset is compromised


Data Classification Procedure

1. Custodian - identify 2. Classification criteria - specify 3. Controls - per classification 4. Exceptions - document 5. Transfer custody - methods 6. Declassification - reclassification/ termination 7. Awareness - of security program


Manage third party governance

An important aspect of information security governance is the rules and processes employed when dealing with third party relationships and may include: 1. Service providers 2. Outsourced operations 3. Trading partners 4. Merged or acquired organizations


RACI Model

1. Responsible 2. Accountable 3. Informed


Risk Management

The process of identifying, analyzing, and reducing the risk to an acceptable level.


Risk Management - Risk Assessment

1. A method of identifying a company’s assets, their associated risks, and the potential loss that the organization could suffer. 2. Detailed estimate of likelihood and impact of particular events. 3. Suggested countermeasures


Risk Management - Risk mitigation

Managment selects countermeasures


Risk Management - Controls evaluation

Ongoing process


Risk Management Models - ANZ 4360

Australian-New Zealand risk management framework


Risk Management Model - NIST SP 800-30

US GOV risk management standard - risk


Risk Management Model - OCTAVE

Operationally Critical Threat Asset and Vulnerability Evaluations - risk


Risk Management Model - Basel II

Financial Risk management framework adopted by the EU as a minimum acceptable standard of practice


Risk Management Process (org chart)

Plan (top) —> Identify (risk identification) —> Analyze (qual and can risk anal) —> Prioritize —> Plan (risk response) —> Execute —> Evaluate —> Document —> back to (top)


Risk Management - How to handle - Asset

Any resource valuable to the organization - server/workstation


Risk Management - How to handle - Threat

Potential danger to an asset should a threat-agent take advantage of an assets vulnerability - think thumb drive


Risk Management - How to handle - Threat Source/Threat Agent

Anything and/or anyone that has the potential to cause threat - think thumb drive


Risk Management - How to handle - Vulnerability

A flaw or weakness of an asset - think thumb drive


Identifying threats and vulnerabilities - Possible losses

1. Potential loss 2. Delayed loss


Identifying threats and vulnerabilities - Hard to identify

1. Buffer overflows 2. Employee fraud 3. Illogical processing


Possible threats - Confidentiality

1. Shoulder surfing 2. Interception of a message 3. Social engineering


Possible threats - Integrity

1. Disabling the alert mechanism of an IDS 2. Modifying a message in transmission 3. Changing accounting records or system logs 4. Modifying configuration files


Possible threats - Availability

1. Man made 2. Component failure within a device 3. terrorist attack 4 Denial of Service attack


Security Risk Definitions - Risk

Likelihood of a threat agent exploiting a vulnerability


Security Risk Definitions - Exposure

An opportunity for a threat to cause loss


Security Risk Definitions - Exploit

Instance of loss experienced


Security Risk Definitions - Loss

real or perceived devaluation of an asset


Security Risk Definitions - Controls

technical and nontechnical risk mitigation mechanisms


4 goals of Risk Assessment

1. Assets - identify, valuate, classify 2. Risk - identify 3. Quantify - the impact


Risk Approach - Quantitative

Numeric and monetary values


Risk Approach - Qualitative

1. Subjective rating assigned 2. Intuition 3. Delphi method


Annualized Loss Expectancy - (SLE)

Single Loss Expectancy - 1. Asset Value (AV) X Exposure Factor (EF) = SLE 2. The exposure factor represents the percentage of loss a realized threat could have on a certain asset.


Annualized Loss Expectancy - (ALE)

1. SLE X Annualized rate of occurrence (ARO) = ALE 2. The ARO is the value that represents the estimated possibility of a specific threat taking place.


ALE Example

1. Tornado is estimated to damage (50%) of a facility it hits and the value of the facility is $200K. 2. The probability is one in ten years. ALE is $10K. AV X FE = SLE then SLE X ARO = ALE 3. Managment should not spend over $10K in countermeasures to protect against this risk.


Qualitative Risk Analysis Steps (5)

1. Develop risk scenarios 2. Gather company “SME’s” 3. Walk through scenarios to determine results 4. Prioritize risks and threats to assets 5. Build consensus for best countermeasures


Types of Risk - Total

Risk that exists before controls


Types of Risk - Residual

risk after countermeasures or safeguards


Types of Risk - Accepted

If a company chooses not to implement countermeasures they make the choice of the total risk of a threat


Risk Assessment Team

1. Ensure business managers maintain accountability for their decisions 2. Representatives from each department should be on the team or at least interviewed 3. Identify company assets by interviewing individuals, reviewing documents and tours. 4. Many factors play into estimating the value of an asset, not just the value of a purchase order.


Risk Mitigation Options - Reject

Ignore Neglect


Risk Mitigation Options - Reduce

1. Risk Avoidance 2. Risk Limitation


Risk Mitigation Options - Accept

Risk assumptions


Risk Mitigation Options - Transfer



Control Criteria - Good security control

!. Achieves its goal by mitigating the risk 2. Makes good business sense because it is cost effective


Control Criteria - Cost Benefit Analysis Formula

1. ALE before control. 2. ALE after control. 3. Annual Cost of Control


Employee Management Policies - Address

1. Dangerous shortcuts 2. Collusion 3. Fraud


Employee Management Policies - Apply to

1. Pre-employment 2. Mid-employment 3. Post-employment


Employees Policies - Pre employment

1. Background check 2. drug screening 3. Security clearance 4. credit check


Employees Policies - Termination

1. Person should leave facility immediately upon term. 2. Surrender Badge, keys and co. prop. 3. Review the non-disclosure agreement 4. Exit interview 5. Disable user accounts 6. Change passwords 7. be respectful


Knowledge transfer

Awareness, training and education - People are often the weakest link in securing information. Awareness of the need to protect information, training in the skills needed to operate them securely, and education in security measures and practices are of critical importance for the success of an organizations security program.