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Neurology > Seizures & Epilepsy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Seizures & Epilepsy Deck (18):
1

causes of seizures?

Vascular (stroke, AVM)
Infection
Trauma
Autoimmune (vasculitis)
Metabolic (hypoMg, Na, Ca, gluc, O2; hyperNa; drugs)
Idiopathic
Neoplasm
pSychiatric = pseudo-seizure

2

post-seizure tests (to dx cause of seizure)

-CT
-MRI
-O2 sat
-metabolic panel
-toxin screen
-trauma Hx

-EEG --> if all others are negative

3

drugs that cause seizures

-cocaine
-benzodiazepine/barbituate withdrawal
-alcohol toxicity or withdrawal
-phenylcyclidine toxicity

4

pseudo-seizure dx

-normal EEG

5

seizure vs syncope

-posi-ictal confusion, muscle aches, somnolence; incontinence; tongue biting; long time to regain consciousness

-no post-ictal period, no incontinence/tongue biting, recover conscious quickly (minutes)

6

causes of gradual loss of consciousness

-hypoxia
-hypoglycemia
-metabolic abnormalities
-vasovagal

7

causes of sudden loss of consciousness

-cardiac (sudden regain of consciousness) --MS, AS, HOCM

-neurological (gradual regain of consciousness)

8

partial seizure types?

-simple = no loss of consciousness
-complex = loss of consciousness + automatisms + aura
(chewing, lip smacking)

-partial seizure with secondary generalization
= loss of consciousness + tonic-clonic activity

9

generalized seizure types?

-tonic clonic (grand mal)
-absence (petit mal)

10

status epilepticus tx

-benzodiazepines (lorazepam) = best initial
-phenytoin(anti arrhythmic) or fosphenytoin
-barbiturates (phenobarbital)
-anesthesia (propofol or midazolam)

11

phenytoin SE

-gingivial hyperplasia
-vertigo
-ataxia
-vertical nystagmus
-hypotension, bradycardia

12

only tx first time seizure pt if...

-was in status epileptics
-abnormal EEG
-strong FHx of seizure disorder

13

absence seizure tx

ethosuxamide

or valproic acid

14

seizure tx options
(not absence seizures)

-valproic acid
-phenytoin
-carbamazepine
-lamotragine

15

lamotragine SE

Stevens Johnson syndrome
toxic epidermal necrolysis

16

trigeminal neuralgia tx

carbamazepine

17

seizure tx in pregnancy

carbamazepine (?)

18

is there a post-ictal state in absence seizures?

no