Flashcards in Self-trauma Deck (21)
How should the problem of 'self-trauma' be defined? 4
- SKIN-MANIPULATING BEHAVIOUR: new, frequency, duration, disruption of other behaviour, tissue damage
- PATIENT FACTORS - species, breed, location of pruritus, temperament, conformation and agility
- OBSERVER FACTORS - skills, time spent with pet, relationship with pet, attitude, knowledge and experience, personal threshold.
- CLINICAL ASSESSMENT - abnormal spontaneous behaviour, reflexes, evidence of trauma (gross and hair)
How and the problem of self-trauma be refined? 4
- INTERNAL (pain, pruritus)
- NEUROLOGICAL (pain, pruritus)
- MIMICKING - pain, altered sensation, neuro or behavioural
subjective sensation of itching, provoking the desire to scratch. Symptom not disease. No practical objective tool to measure it.
What causes the itch sensation?
Itch receptors located at dermo-epidermal junction OR basal epidermis. Stimulated by puirtogenic substances Usually an inflammatory environment.
What is the cause of most pruritic skin diseases?
superficial inflammatory disease.
Other than superficial inflammatory disease, what else can cause pruritic skin disease? 4
- inflammatory cell neoplasia
- other skin diseases
- dry skin causing epidermal micro-fissures
- exacerbation by irritant factors (high temp, humidity, fabrics)
What is the pruritic threshold and what is it influenced by?
= level of sensation obove which the animal starts scratching.
- influences - temperament, anxiety and mental stimulation
- removal of some causes MAY suffice for control
Name the 3 commonest cause of pruritic skin disease
- PARASITES - surface mites (cheyletiella), burrowing mites (Sarcoptes), Trombicula (harvest mite), (follicular mites)
- MICROBES - Staph, Malassexia, (Dermatophytes)
- HYPERSENSITIVITY - flea/insect bite hypersensitivity, atopic dermatitis, food hypersensitivity
Other than parasites, microbes and hypersensitivity, what can cause pruritic skin disease?
- (Contact dermatitis)
- cornification/metabolic disorders
- Neoplasia - epitheliotropic lymphoma or MCT
- Drug eruption
* >1 pruritic disease at once
* +/- secondary microbial infection
What are the 4 commonest Ddx for pruritic skin disease
- Staph pyoderma
- Malassezia dermatitis
- Allergic skin disease
* MUST rule out/control ectoparasitic and microbial causes first *
What is a typical Atopic dermatitis itch distribution
- tail base
What is a typical scabies itch distributio?
- ventral abdomen
What are the main parasites responsible for pruritis in dogs, cats and horses?
- DOG - scabies, other mites
- CAT - Cheyletiella, other mites
- HORSE - Chorioptes, other mites
What are the main microbes responsible for pruritis in dogs, cats and horses?
- DOG - Staph pyoderma, Malassezia
- CAT - (bacterial), (Malassezia), (Dermatophytosis)
- HORSE - Staph infection, (Dermatophilus), (Dermatophytosis)
What are the main hypersensitivies responsible for pruritis in dogs, cats and horses?
- DOG - FAD, AD, food hypersensitivity
- CAT - FAD, AD, Food hypersensitivity, eosinophilic plaques
- HORSES - Insect bite hypersensitivity, AD, food hypersensitivity?
What is sweet itch in horses?
allergic bite hypersensitivity
What are the 4 method for cytology?
- clear adhesive tape
- direct impression smear
- cotton swabs
What do you get and when should you use clear adhesive tape for cytology?
- exfoliated superficial corny layer
- fairly dry lesions
What do you get and when should you use direct impression smear for cytology?
- adhered exudate and exfoliated exposed cells
- moist, sticky, exudative lesions
What do you get and when should you use cotton swabs for cytology?
- harvested exudate
- ear canals, deep folds, difficult to access sites