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Flashcards in Self-trauma Deck (21):
1

How should the problem of 'self-trauma' be defined? 4

- SKIN-MANIPULATING BEHAVIOUR: new, frequency, duration, disruption of other behaviour, tissue damage
- PATIENT FACTORS - species, breed, location of pruritus, temperament, conformation and agility
- OBSERVER FACTORS - skills, time spent with pet, relationship with pet, attitude, knowledge and experience, personal threshold.
- CLINICAL ASSESSMENT - abnormal spontaneous behaviour, reflexes, evidence of trauma (gross and hair)

2

How and the problem of self-trauma be refined? 4

- INTERNAL (pain, pruritus)
- NEUROLOGICAL (pain, pruritus)
- BEHAVIOURAL
- MIMICKING - pain, altered sensation, neuro or behavioural

3

Define pruritus

subjective sensation of itching, provoking the desire to scratch. Symptom not disease. No practical objective tool to measure it.

4

What causes the itch sensation?

Itch receptors located at dermo-epidermal junction OR basal epidermis. Stimulated by puirtogenic substances Usually an inflammatory environment.

5

What is the cause of most pruritic skin diseases?

superficial inflammatory disease.

6

Other than superficial inflammatory disease, what else can cause pruritic skin disease? 4

- inflammatory cell neoplasia
- other skin diseases
- dry skin causing epidermal micro-fissures
- exacerbation by irritant factors (high temp, humidity, fabrics)

7

What is the pruritic threshold and what is it influenced by?

= level of sensation obove which the animal starts scratching.
- influences - temperament, anxiety and mental stimulation
- removal of some causes MAY suffice for control

8

Name the 3 commonest cause of pruritic skin disease

- PARASITES - surface mites (cheyletiella), burrowing mites (Sarcoptes), Trombicula (harvest mite), (follicular mites)
- MICROBES - Staph, Malassexia, (Dermatophytes)
- HYPERSENSITIVITY - flea/insect bite hypersensitivity, atopic dermatitis, food hypersensitivity

9

Other than parasites, microbes and hypersensitivity, what can cause pruritic skin disease?

- (Contact dermatitis)
- cornification/metabolic disorders
- Neoplasia - epitheliotropic lymphoma or MCT
- Drug eruption
* >1 pruritic disease at once
* +/- secondary microbial infection

10

What are the 4 commonest Ddx for pruritic skin disease

- parasites
- Staph pyoderma
- Malassezia dermatitis
- Allergic skin disease
* MUST rule out/control ectoparasitic and microbial causes first *

11

What is a typical Atopic dermatitis itch distribution

- nose
- footpads
- tail base
- groin

12

What is a typical scabies itch distributio?

- hocks
- elbows
- ventral abdomen

13

What are the main parasites responsible for pruritis in dogs, cats and horses?

- DOG - scabies, other mites
- CAT - Cheyletiella, other mites
- HORSE - Chorioptes, other mites

14

What are the main microbes responsible for pruritis in dogs, cats and horses?

- DOG - Staph pyoderma, Malassezia
- CAT - (bacterial), (Malassezia), (Dermatophytosis)
- HORSE - Staph infection, (Dermatophilus), (Dermatophytosis)

15

What are the main hypersensitivies responsible for pruritis in dogs, cats and horses?

- DOG - FAD, AD, food hypersensitivity
- CAT - FAD, AD, Food hypersensitivity, eosinophilic plaques
- HORSES - Insect bite hypersensitivity, AD, food hypersensitivity?

16

What is sweet itch in horses?

allergic bite hypersensitivity

17

What are the 4 method for cytology?

- clear adhesive tape
- direct impression smear
- cotton swabs
- FNA

18

What do you get and when should you use clear adhesive tape for cytology?

- exfoliated superficial corny layer
- fairly dry lesions

19

What do you get and when should you use direct impression smear for cytology?

- adhered exudate and exfoliated exposed cells
- moist, sticky, exudative lesions

20

What do you get and when should you use cotton swabs for cytology?

- harvested exudate
- ear canals, deep folds, difficult to access sites

21

What do you get and when should you use FNA for cytology?

- core of exfoliated cells from dermis or deeper
- lumps or swelling.