SEMINAR CLASS #4 - Week of 4/15/18: "Taxpayers" - FFP – Taxpayers, FFP – PD's (Chap 6 only), SB #84, 85, & 92, TB – Rope #6 Instructor: BC Mike Barvels Flashcards Preview

Fire Officer Spring 2018 > SEMINAR CLASS #4 - Week of 4/15/18: "Taxpayers" - FFP – Taxpayers, FFP – PD's (Chap 6 only), SB #84, 85, & 92, TB – Rope #6 Instructor: BC Mike Barvels > Flashcards

Flashcards in SEMINAR CLASS #4 - Week of 4/15/18: "Taxpayers" - FFP – Taxpayers, FFP – PD's (Chap 6 only), SB #84, 85, & 92, TB – Rope #6 Instructor: BC Mike Barvels Deck (65)
Loading flashcards...
1

1) Two firefighters discussing taxpayer features made an incorrect statement when they assured the probationary firefighter that? (Txpyr Glossary)
A) An axial load is a force perpendicular to the supporting member and is straight and true and evenly applied to the bearing structure.
B) An eccentric load is a force perpendicular to the supporting member but does not pass through the center of the mass. The load is not evenly applied to the supporting or bearing member.
C) A lateral load is exerted outwardly on a horizontal plane. This force may take place during a collapse or explosion. Walls are not usually designed to withstand severe lateral loads.
D) A marquee is a supported, roof like covering which projects from a wall as an ornamental feature.

1. D

Marquee- a permanent hood which projects over an entrance to a building and is not
supported by posts or columns.

2

2) Which common description of Taxpayers is listed incorrectly according to FDNY's
"Firefighting Procedures?" (Txpyr 2.1 -2.2)

A) Supermarkets and one-story shopping centers of more recent construction contain many of the inherent hazards associated with taxpayers and shall be considered "taxpayers."
B) A taxpayer building is commonly a business structure, one to four stories in height, of Class 6 construction (exterior walls with heavy timber structural members).
C) Taxpayer areas vary from 20' x 50' to areas of whole city blocks, the most common size being approximately 100' x 100'. They can be built on one or more lots with adjoining structures of greater heights on three sides.
D) These buildings are usually single structures commonly sheltering from one to as many as 15 different businesses with weak, non-fire resistant partitions and no fire stops in the cocklofts.

2. B

2.2 A taxpayer building is commonly taken to mean a business structure one or two stories in height of Class 3 construction (exterior firewalls with wooden interior structural
members).

3

3) Which of the following is not indicative of the older type taxpayer built from the turn of the century until the I920's? (Txpyr 2.3.1)
A) This type is usually one story in height but there are some that have two stories.
B) Decorative metal cornices, through which fire can spread, may be found on the front of some buildings. They are solid members and cannot be removed to provide access to the cockloft area.
C) Some of the older structures have partitions, girders, beams, and columns of wood and may be considered wood frame buildings although most have masonry exteriors.
D) The original ceilings may be tin, or original lath and plaster and wood ceilings could be covered with tin. When renovating these buildings, hanging ceilings are installed which create a plenum area for fire travel.

3. B

2.3.1 The older type built from the turn of the century until the 1920's. This type is
usually one story in height but there are some that have two stories. Some of the
older structures have partitions, girders, beams, and columns of wood and may be
considered wood frame buildings although most have masonry exteriors. This makes them susceptible to rapid fire involvement. The original ceilings may be tin, nailed directly to the beams or to furring strips. Original lath and plaster and wood ceilings could be covered with tin. When renovating these buildings, hanging ceilings are installed which create a plenum area for fire travel. In this plenum area are installed pipes, wiring, air handling ducts and recessed lighting fixtures. Decorative metal cornices, through which fire can spread, may be found on the front of some buildings. When there is a heavy fire in the front of the building, the supports of these cornices can be weakened and the cornice can fall to the ground unexpectedly. They can be removed to provide access to the cockloft area.

4

4) All of the following are correct regarding taxpayers built from the 1920's into the 1960's except? (Txpyr 2.3.2)
A) This is the most prevalent type of taxpayer.
B) They are usually larger in area than the older types and many are one-tenant occupancies, such as supermarkets, bowling alleys, restaurants, factories, etc.
C) Many are two stories in height with various stores on the first floor. The second floor may house large meeting halls, dance halls, restaurants, factories, etc., or the floor may be broken up into small offices and rooms.
D) Cornices, of the facade type, and signs are often attached to the front of the building outside off the brick walls. Removing the cornice or sign in most cases will provide access to the cockloft area.

4. D

2.3.2 The most prevalent type built from the 1920's into the 1960's. They are usually
larger in area than the older types and many are one-tenant occupancies, such as
supermarkets, bowling alleys, restaurants, factories, etc. If the area is large, fire walls may have been installed for subdivision of the building. The integrity of these may be questionable because of alterations and openings made in them. The upper termination points of these walls vary. Some end just above or below the ceilings, others at the underside of the roof boards and still others may extend over the roof forming parapet walls. Many are two stories in height with various stores on the first floor. The second floor may house large meeting halls, dancehalls, restaurants, factories, etc., or the floor may be broken up into small offices and rooms. (See Figs. 1 and 2). Egress from the upper floor may be via one or more interior stairways or fire escapes. Cornices, of the facade type, and
signs are often attached to the front of the building outside off the brick walls.
Removing the cornice or sign in most cases will not provide access to the cockloft area.

5

5) Which choice below reflects incorrect information regarding the newer type of taxpayer construction, built since the 1960's? (Txpyr 2.3.3,3.13.1)
A) These contain the same type of occupancies and the structural features will be similar to the previous types except that the use of combustible construction material has been reduced.
B) In many of these buildings the difference will be the steel bar joists that are used to support the floors and roof in place of wood beams.
C) In the newest type of taxpayers, the floor and roof may be concrete poured on top of metal decking, which is supported by the metal joists.
D) The cellar will remain a major flre fighting factor because, for the most part, first floors are constructed of lightweight wood or flat wood trusses.

5. D

3.13.3 The roof system will remain a major fire fighting factor because, for the most
part, the roofs are constructed of "Bar Joists," light weight steel or flat wood
trusses. These features, and how they behave under fire conditions, have been
covered under "Truss Roofs," Section 3.3.3. (See Figs. 5 & 10).

6

6) Mezzanine areas will be found in some taxpayers and their location, area and use will differ. Some are found in the rear of the occupancy or building, some along one side from front to rear or along part of one side, and a few have been erected in the center of the premises. Which of the following is correct regarding mezzanines found in taxpayers? (Txpyr 2.4)

A) The height of the ceilings in the mezzanine and the area below will be above average.
B) The majority of mezzanines will be enclosed by solid plywood or gypsum board.
C) The mezzanine area is, in most cases, used for storage of goods, but it can contain offices (predominant in supermarkets and factories) and also sales areas to which the public will have access.
D) Access to the mezzanine will be via small wooden stairs and another means of access, usually a ladder.

6. C

2.4.6 In the majority of the mezzanines this area will not be enclosed and there will be a
railing at the edge.

7

8) Which choice below contains incorrect information regarding cockloft and roof
construction in taxpayers? (Txpyr 3.2.1-3.3.2)
A) The cockloft is usually a common area extending over all the stores in the structure and will be limited in height from four to six inches.
B) Inverted, raised or reversed roof construction is used to create a pitch to provide drainage. Sometimes an inverted roof is constructed over an existing roof and forms an additional cockloft.
C) There are many types of roofs on taxpayers but the most common is constructed of wood joists covered with either tongue and groove boards or plywood, covered with combustible
waterproofing material which may be several layers thick.
D) The roof joists may be supported at approximately 20-foot intervals, by exterior brick bearing walls, interior load bearing studded partitions, wood or steel girders supported by steel lally columns or wood columns.

8. A

3.2.1 The cockloft is the space above the finished ceiling and the underside of the roof
sheathing. It usually is a common area extending over all the stores in the
structure and can vary in height from four inches to more than six feet. A large
amount of exposed wood, such as roof boards, bridging and wood lath is present.
These factors of wide open area and heavy fire loading result in rapid fire spread.
Fire may enter the cockloft through recesses, voids and ducts.

8

9) Which description of truss roof construction listed below is incorrect? (Txpyr 3.3.3 A, 1, A, B)

A) Open web steel joists, found in modern taxpayer construction, have a greater fire resistance rating than bowstring truss roofs and some standard joist roofs.
B) The wooden bowstring truss is found in older commercial structures and has a
characteristic hump-like roof profile. The longer the span, the higher the bow.
C) In older type bowstring truss roof buildings, the trusses may be spaced 10 or 20 feet apart with roof beams installed between the trusses to support the roof coverings.
D) Open web steel joists come in standardized lengths, depths and carrying capacities. They are used to span long distances up to 60 feet.

9. A

A. Open web steel joists, found in modern taxpayer construction, have no fire resistance rating. Fire rating depends upon the ceiling finish and finish roofing.

9

10) Buildings with bowstring truss roofs must be entered into the eCIDS program, with what abbreviation as the FD Designation? (Txpyr 3.3.3 K Note)
A) BWSTRF
B) BWST
C) BTR
D) BWSTRG

10. D

Note: Buildings with bowstring truss roofs must be entered into the eCIDS program, with the abbreviation BWSTRG as the FD Designation.

10

11) Bottom chords of many bowstring trusses have inadequate tensile strength to support code-prescribed loads. Updated calculations have revealed that bowstring truss roofs may only support_________
of the load they were originally designed to hold. (Txpyr 3.3.3 B)
A) 90%
B) 50%
C) 40%
D) 60%

11. C

B. When the bowstring truss was originally designed, engineers used certain
assumptions pertaining to tensile strength of wood. But using updated testing
methods those assumptions have proven to be incorrect. The bottom chords of
many bowstring trusses have inadequate tensile strength to support codeprescribed
loads. Updated calculations have revealed that bowstring truss roofs may only support 40% of the load they were originally designed to hold.

11

7) Generally, the only auxiliary fire protection found in taxpayers will be automatic sprinkler systems where they are required by the Code. Which rule for sprinkler protection in taxpayers is
listed incorrectly? (Txpyr 2.5.1)
A) 1938 Code - Area exceeding 10,000 square feet.
B) 1968 Code - Area exceeding 7,500 square feet.
C) 2008 Code - Group M-Mercantile FULL BUILDING - Area exceeding 12,000 square feet
D) 2008 Code - Group M-Mercantile - The combined area on all floors, not including
mezzanines, exceeds 10,000 square feet.

7. D

2.5.1 Generally the only auxiliary fire protection that may be found in these buildings will be automatic sprinkler systems where they are required by the Code. In some cases due to variances, sprinklers may only be found in the cellar areas.
Rules for sprinkler protection:
1938 Code Area exceeding 10,000 square feet.
1968 Code Area exceeding 7,500 square feet.
2008 Code-Group M-Mercantile FULL BUILDING-Area exceeding 12,000
square feet OR the combined area on all
floors including mezzanines exceeds 24,000
square feet. (BC 903.2.6)
Storage of merchandise is in high-piled racks or rack storage arrays (BC 903.2.6.1)
OCCUPANCY WITHIN BUILDING-Area
exceeding 7,500 square feet OR area of any size is located 3 stories above grade OR area of any size is located in a High Rise building
OR area of any size contains an unenclosed stair or escalator connecting two or more
floors. (BC 903.2.6.2)

12

12) Members of a busy Brooklyn Ladder Company were discussing the dangers of bowstring truss roofs and were correct in all statements except one. Indicate the incorrect statement.
(Txpyr 3.3.3 C-H,J)
A) A common bowstring truss design flaw involves snow loads. Snow that drifts due to the wind can be significantly deeper in one area, particularly behind raised parapet walls. This eccentric (off-center), unbalanced, concentrated load can create an overload on the trusses.
B) Bowstring truss roof overload can occur due to later additions of loads that were not considered in the original design.
C) In older bowstring truss roof buildings, there is a possibility of rotting at the ends of the trusses where they rest on the walls, due to water leaking through the roof covering.
D) Failure of one truss element will usually not cause failure of the entire truss. Only when a number of trusses are affected can a domino effect cause a large portion of the roof to collapse.

12. D

H. Failure of one truss element can cause a failure of the entire truss. This in turn may pull down a number of trusses, in a domino effect which will cause the entire roof, or a large portion, to collapse. Failure can occur in the early stages of the fire.

13

13) Unprotected open web steel joists are particularly vulnerable to elevated temperatures of a
fire and may collapse after only? (Txpyr 3.3.3 D)
A) 30 minutes
B) 1 or 2 hours
C) 5 or 10 minutes
D) 2 or 3 minutes

D. Unprotected open web steel joists are particularly vulnerable to elevated temperatures of a fire and may collapse after only 5 or 10 minutes.

14

14) "I" beams protruding above the roof surface, or roofs built in step fashion with one store roof slightly higher than another, sometimes give the false impression of fire division walls. Which choice below contains incorrect information regarding this taxpayer roof feature?
(Txpyr 3.3.4 A)
A) The side walls of such protrusions are made of wood sheathing and are easily detected by striking them with a tool to differentiate them from a masonry wall.
B) These side walls can be opened for inspection.
C) These side walls cannot be opened for stream operation.
D) A good working knowledge of these features will allow members on roofs to determine the size and shape of the fire building for the information of operating forces on the first floor.

14. C

A. "I" beams protruding above the roof surface or roofs built in step fashion
with one store roof slightly higher than another sometimes give the false
impression of fire division walls. The side walls of such protrusions are made of wood sheathing and are easily detected by striking them with a tool to differentiate them from a masonry wall. They can be opened for
inspection or stream operation. A good working knowledge of these features will allow members on roofs to determine the size and shape of the fire building for the information of operating forces on the first floor.

15

15) Many types of walls may be found supporting taxpayers. Which choice below gives an incorrect description of taxpayer walls? (Txpyr 3,4.2,3.4.4)
A) Interior partition walls between stores are usually of wood stud construction, with plaster or sheet rock covering, and are usually fire stopped at the floor and the ceiling by wood sills and plates.
B) The stability of masonry walls is very much dependent on the integrity of the roof. The roof acts as a monolithic brace which ties the walls together, providing lateral support.
C) Concrete block walls sometimes hinge at ground level and an entire side or rear wall may remain intact and fall out flat.
D) Brick walls usually remain intact and fall out flat, usually a distance equal to the height of the wall.

15. D

Brick walls usually crumble or break as they fall, but large sections can be projected a good distance due to the impact as the wall
hits the ground.

16

16) Of the following, which statement made by a Chief Officer during multi-unit-drill was
incorrect in its description of parapet wall dangers in taxpayer structures? (Txpyr 3.4.3)
A) A particularly hazardous condition is the possibility of front parapet wall collapse (e.g., any parapet wall facing a street; a corner building facing one, two or three streets). This parapet wall is often unsupported laterally for a long distance, receiving its support only at the ends where they tie into crosswalls.
B) An uncontrolled fire in a remote portion of a taxpayer or in the cockloft may be heating "I" beams supporting the parapet wall, and causing their expansion and steadily pushing the parapet outward.
C) Stability of masonry walls depends on the load being concentrated in a vertical direction through the wall. Any degree of tilting which causes this load to be eccentric to the vertical may cause collapse
D) Operations within stores or in front of stores may have to be discontinued because of the condition of the parapet wall. Long sections of parapet walls almost always break apart into smaller sections as they collapse.

16. E.

A long section of this wall often remains intact as the wall topples onto the
sidewalk. Members have been killed or injured by such wall collapses.

17

17) Which common construction feature of taxpayers is incorrectly described below?
(Txpyr 3.5.1, 3.6.1, 3.6.2)
A) A large, heavy "1" beam will be able to absorb more heat but its temperature will rise more rapidly than a lightweight beam.
B) "1" beams are often built into side or rear masonry walls, or butt the front parapet wall, where they are supported by masonry piers or iron columns at the storefronts.
C) If heated "1" beams are restrained from expanding (unlikely at roof level in taxpayers), they will buckle. Sometimes an "I" beam will push out a small section of bricks and allow fire to extend to exposures.
D) Marquees are required by the building code to have drainage facilities but many have been found to have roof type gutters and down spouts blocked with debris, rubbish and rubber balls.

17. A

A large, heavy "I" beam will be able to
absorb more heat and its temperature will rise more slowly than a lightweight
beam.

18

19) Ceilings and floors of taxpayers offer their own unique designs and dangers. Which choice below contains incorrect information regarding these features? (Txpyr 3.8.1, 3.8.3, 3.9.1,3.9.3)
A) When pulling sheet rock ceilings, large pieces often "hinge" at one side as they swing down and can inflict injury if they come down edge first.
B) Special care must be exercised when ceilings are constructed of heavy wire lath and plaster or tin, as these ceilings often fail and fall in one piece over the entire area of a store.
C) Paneling under display windows at street fronts can always be removed to offer ventilation and stream operation points for cellar fires. The flooring under the raised display platform will always be omitted behind these panels, offering easy access for streams.
D) Flooring can vary in taxpayers. The most common type floors are tongue and groove boards or plywood, supported by wood floor joists.

19. C

3.9.3 Paneling under display windows at street fronts can sometimes be removed to
offer ventilation and stream operation points for cellar fires. The flooring under the raised display platform is sometimes omitted behind these panels.

19

20) It is 0304 hours on Saturday and you are the Lieutenant in charge of the first arriving Ladder Company at a cellar fire in a 1-story commercial building. After reviewing your options to deal successfully with this fire, you would be correct to follow the instructions and procedures in all choices below except? (Txpyr 3.10.2,3.10.3 B, 3.11.1)
A) The weight that is added to the front walls by metal overhead rolling security doors, especially when these doors are in the closed position, can cause the lintel over the store front to fail and the wall and door assembly may fall during a fire
B) Outside cellar stairs are usually found in the rear of taxpayers. When there are several stores in the building, these stairs may lead to a passageway along the rear cellar wall from which access can be gained to the various storage areas.
C) Cellar ceilings are required to be fire-retarded but the plaster covering may be deficient.
D) Partition walls between cellars are usually of combustible or flimsy construction and joist channels at cellar ceilings are often not fire stopped allowing fire, combustible gas and smoke
extension from cellar to cellar.

20. A

The weight that is added to the front walls, especially when these doors are in the open
position, can cause the lintel over the store front to fail and the wall and door assembly may fall during a fire.

20

21) You would be most correct to know that, according to FFP Taxpayer Fires, one warning sign that may signal a potential structural collapse during firefighting operations is a heavy body of fire which has been burning out of control for? (Txpyr 4.2.5 A, J)
A) 20 minutes or more, particularly in a large open floor area.
B) 15 minutes or more, particularly in a large open floor area.
C) 20 minutes or more, particularly in a small, confined floor area
D) 15 minutes or more, particularly in a small, confined floor area.

21. A

4.2.5 Some of the warning signs that will signal a potential structural collapse during
firefighting operations are:
A. Heavy body of fire which has been burning out of control for 20 minutes
or more, particularly in a large open floor area.

21

22) A knowledgeable company officer alert to the warning signs of backdraft would be most correct to know that a room or fire area requires only _____ percent of its space to contain the explosive mixture for the entire area to possibly explode. (Txpyr 4.4.1 F)
A) 5%
B) 30%
C) 25%
D) 90%

22. C

F. It must be remembered that in a high heat condition, combustible gases and highly heated contents are now present in the structure. All that is missing is a source of air or oxygen to create an explosive fire. A room or fire area requires only 25 percent of its space to contain the explosive mixture for the entire area to possibly explode. The entire area could explode when firefighters enter to search and allow fresh air to enter with them.

22

23) Two company officers were discussing FDNY operations in structures where backdraft is possible. One made an incorrect statement in which choice? (Txpyr 4.4.1 K-N)
A) When conditions are favorable for a backdraft, the proper procedure is to open the roof or area directly over the fire to allow hot gases to move upward through the opening away from the fire.
B) Even if a backdraft occurs after the roof has been vented, the explosion will be diverted upward, out of the roof opening, and away from the firefighters advancing the hoseline.
C) If horizontal ventilation is performed at lower levels prior to roof venting, the chances of a backdraft explosion are greatly increased. There will be a momentary out-rush of smoke
followed almost immediately by an in-rush of fresh air. This reversal could be accompanied by a peculiar roar or whistle of great force.
D) An alternative to roof venting, and just as effective, is the use of a hose stream. Before entering a room or area that exhibits signs of an explosive atmosphere, a charged hoseline should be positioned near the entrance with firefighters crouched low. The hoseline should be
discharged into the fire area a few seconds after the fire area is opened up.

23. D

N. An alternative to roof venting although not as effective, is the use of a hose stream. Before entering a room or area that exhibits signs of an explosive atmosphere, a charged hoseline should be positioned near the
entrance. Initially, firefighters should be protected by taking a flanking position or by the reach of the hose stream. The hoseline should be immediately discharged into the fire area when the fire area is opened-up.
Taking this action before firefighters and outside air enter a burning, confined, potentially explosive fire area, may allow the water stream to break up the explosive atmosphere. The water can cool a potentially
explosive atmosphere.

23

18) Columns in taxpayers can be made from wood, cast iron, lally columns (steel or cast iron) or masonry piers which support the beams. Cast iron columns are unpredictable and fail, on average, in about fire endurance tests. (Txpyr 3.7.1)
A) 1 hour
B) 30 minutes
C) 5 to 10 minutes
D) 2 to 3 hours

18. B

3.7.1 Columns in taxpayers can be made from wood, cast iron, lally columns (steel or
cast iron) or masonry piers which support the beams. Cast iron columns are unpredictable and fail, on the average, in about thirty (30) minutes in fire endurance tests. Some columns fail sooner than cast iron columns. The failure of a column is generally more serious than the failure of a girder or beam. The failure of a column in the cellar can cause the subsequent collapse of the floors and roof. Coating or spraying the columns with fire proofing material on new type construction is often a haphazard process, because of shoddy workmanship and on-the-job alterations made after application.

24

24) Which Engine Company tactic is not in accordance with FDNY procedures for taxpayer cellar fires? (Txpyr 4.7.2, 4.7.3, 4.7.7, 5.3.2)
A) When advancing a hoseline down into the cellar, it is advisable to post a lookout at the top of a cellar stair or outside the cellar entrance to observe conditions.
B) In large areas or cellars, it is advisable to have a backup or protection line in place in case heat builds up and fire breaks out behind the advancing hoseline.
C) Engine members shall stay extremely close to each other while advancing the hoseline to avoid any one single member getting lost.
D) In the cellar, the floor joists have the ceiling attached directly to the bottom of the joists, or furring strips are attached at right angles to the joists, and the ceiling attached to the furring. A fire originating in the cellar has a strong probability of entering the bays between the joists and if
this occurs, the fire will travel the length of the joists.

24. C

4.7.7 Do not "bunch up". Spread out along a line to lessen floor loads in a central area
and limit the injury potential in the event the structure fails.

25

25) Captain Smith was training her members on roof operations in taxpayer structures. After a discussion on inverted roofs, she corrected one member who made an incorrect comment. Which
choice below is incorrect? (Txpyr 5.3.3 A-D)
A) The inverted roof may be pitched from front to rear, front and rear to center, or from front, rear, and sides to center. In most cases the high portion of the cockloft is at the front of the building.
B) If fire enters the cockloft at the high point or front of the building, the fire problem is more severe than if it has entered into the cockloft at the rear.
C) Since most taxpayer fires originate in the rear of the first floor where utilities, storage, and services are located, this is the area from which the fire usually extends to the cockloft.
D) The standard (flat) roof may have little or no pitch. If it is pitched, it will be from the front
to the rear.

25. B

B. If fire enters the cockloft at the high point or front of the building, our fire problem is less severe than if it has entered into the cockloft at the rear. The reason is that fire does not burn quickly from a high point to a lower area.

26

26) The roof cut for vertical ventilation at a taxpayer fire must be large enough to cause the bulk of the heat, smoke and gases to vent in that direction and away from the advancing hoseline. An insufficient vent opening will cause the heat, smoke and fire to "back up" and vent toward other available flow path openings, including the entrance opening used by the advancing hoseline. Where possible, what size hole is recommended at these fires? (Txpyr 5.4.6, 5.5.17)
A) 8'X 8'
B) 4'X 4'
C) 2'X 3'
D) 3'X 6'

26. A

5.4.6 The roof cut for vertical ventilation must be large enough to cause the bulk of the heat, smoke and gases being produced by the fire to vent in that direction and away from the advancing hose line. An insufficient vent opening will cause the heat, smoke and fire to “back up” and vent toward other available flow path openings, including the entrance opening used by the advancing hoseline. A hole eight feet by eight feet, where possible, is recommended. Methods for cutting and cuts are discussed under section 5.5.

27

27) Proper ventilation is a major component of effective taxpayer operations. Which of the following contains correct information regarding ventilation at these fires? (Txpyr 5.4.8, 5.4.12, 5.4.16, 5.5.22)
A) If difficulty is encountered in opening the returns of scuttles or skylight openings, it may be quicker and more practical to make examination holes for ventilation around the openings.
B) If trenching is to be implemented, remove the returns of skylights to ensure an effective trenching boundary.
C) Engine companies should be aware of the use of the fog patterns on the FT-2 tip to relieve an area of smoke and heat. Remember to adjust the fog pattern to the width of the opening and stand back one to two feet while operating.
D) At cellar fires, it is often necessary to cut the first floor to provide ventilation or for getting water on the fire with bent tips, distributors or cellar pipes. The cut should be made as near to doorways and aisles as possible. When possible, such cuts should be covered by hoselines.

27. A

5.4.8 If difficulty is encountered in opening the returns of scuttles or skylight openings,
it may be quicker and more practical to make examination holes for ventilation around the openings. If trenching is to be implemented, leave the returns in place where the skylights are to be used as an effective trenching boundary.

5.4.16 Engine companies should be aware of the use of the fog patterns on the FT-2 tip
to relieve an area of smoke and heat. Engine Companies must remember to adjust the fog pattern to the width of the opening and stand back four to five feet while operating.

5.5.22 At cellar fires, it is often necessary to cut the first floor to provide the necessary
means of ventilation, so that the engine companies may advance their lines for
extinguishment. The cut also may be used for getting water on the fire with bent
tips, distributors or cellar pipes. The cut should be made as near to the windows
as possible and away from doorways and aisles. When the run of the floor joists
has been established, the cut should be extended at right angles to the joists. This
provides additional cellar ventilation, maximum ventilation of the bays between
joists and access points for streams. The size, location and number of cuts depend
on the obstructions encountered, location and extent of the fire and the area of the
occupancy. Additional cuts in adjacent stores should be made as required. All
such cuts should be covered by hoselines.

28

28) The junior member of Engine 100 made an incorrect statement when discussing bowstring truss roof operations with his officer. Indicate the incorrect statement. (Txpyr 5.5.25 B, C, F)

A) Under no circumstances shall any member operate on the roof of any building involved in a structural fire with a bowstring truss design. However, it is permissible to operate on the roof if
fire involves only the contents.
B) At vacant buildings with bowstring truss roof construction, exterior operations should be the primary tactical consideration.
C) At large and/or advanced fires, or where the timber trusses or the underside of the roof are involved in fire, exterior operations should be the primary tactical consideration.
D) When fire is found to involve the truss space, exterior operations should be the primary tactical consideration.

28. B

Note: Under no circumstances shall any member operate on the roof of any building involved in a content or structural fire with a wooden, metal or combination bowstring truss design.

29

29) In buildings with ceilings, the bowstring trusses are found in the attic area above. This can be extremely dangerous as interior operating forces at an apparent small, localized fire may be unaware of fire involvement in the trusses above them. Which of the following tactics would be
incorrect in this case? (Txpyr 5.5.25 D, E)

A) Members shall use the thermal imaging camera from below to assess if fire has involved the truss space.
B) Another method to determine if fire has entered the truss space is to make a triangular cut in the sloping hip section in the front and/or rear of the roof from the safety of a tower ladder bucket. Collapse zones must be adhered to during this operation.
C) If possible, an exterior hose stream from a tower ladder may be directed into roof cuts in the front and/or rear of the roof to extinguish fire.
D) Units are reminded of the collapse potential of these types of roof systems, with particular attention being paid to the side walls (exposures 2 and 4).

29. D

E. Units are reminded of the collapse potential of these type roof systems, with particular attention being paid to the front and rear walls. This is due to the hip rafters being pushed in a down and outward fashion when the main roof collapses.

30

30) Newer taxpayers have roof supports of lightweight open web steel joists. Which choice below contains incorrect information regarding this type of roof system? (Txpyr 5.5.26 A-F).

A) Joists are spaced greater distances apart than standard wood joists. Spacing will vary depending on the strength of the joists and the type of roof decking used.

B) The most common decking is corrugated steel. With this type decking, the joists are spaced from four to six feet.

C) Steel rib straight trusses do not present the same problems for fire spread as does wood joist construction. The danger is their being weakened by heat and fire from the contents of the occupancy.

D) Members shall not be allowed to operate on roofs of fire buildings with this type of roof support system.

30. D

F. Vertical ventilation should be limited to removal of skylights and scuttle covers if present.