Sensory Systems: Auditory Flashcards Preview

Integrative Neuroscience > Sensory Systems: Auditory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sensory Systems: Auditory Deck (61):
1

Amplitude is measured in _____ and determines _____.

decibels
loudness

2

Frequency is measured in _____ and determines _____.

hertz
pitch

3

Humans hear frequency range between _____ and _____.

20 Hz
20 kHz

4

The _____ and _____ collect sound waves and amplify pressure.

external ear
middle ear

5

Sound waves are transmitted to fluid filled _____ in the _____.

cochlea (hair cells)
inner ear

6

The cochlea breaks down complex sound waves in _____.

simple sinusoidal components

7

Hair cells encode _____, _____, and _____.

frequency
amplitude
phase

8

Hair cells transmit to _____.

auditory fibers

9

The _____ is the softest part of the outer ear.

pinna

10

the _____ is the harder entrance to the ear.

concha

11

the _____ leads from the concha to the tympanic membrane.

external auditory meatus

12

The ear bones (osciclles) are the _____, _____, and _____.

Malleus
Incus
Stapes

13

Sound waves enter the external auditory meatus and vibrate the _____.

tympanic membrane

14

The stapes vibrates against the _____.

oval window

15

Hair cells reside in the _____.

inner ear

16

The middle ear boosts _____ 200 fold.

air pressure

17

The large tympanic membrane funnels sound onto the small _____.

oval window

18

Ear bone breakage results in _____.

conductive hearing loss

19

The two small muscles _____ and _____ are activated automatically to protect the ear.

tensor tympani
stapedius

20

The tympanic membrane is _____ shaped.

cone

21

The stapes moves with a _____ action.

piston-like

22

Hair cells send impulses to the _____.

spiral ganglion

23

Hearing loss due to receptor damage is called _____.

sensorineural hearing loss

24

The _____ vibrates opposite to the oval window, allowing fluids in the cochlea to move

round window

25

The oval window leads to the _____.

scala vestibuli

26

The scala vestibuli leads to the _____ where it becomes the _____.

helicotrema (cochlear apex)
scala tympani

27

Tonotopy

Topographical mapping of frequencies along the basilar membrane.

28

The basal end of the cochlea is _____ and responds well to _____.

narrow and stiff
high frequencies

29

The apical end of the cochlea is _____ and responds well to _____.

wide and flexible
low frequencies

30

The _____ transforms pressure waves into action potentials.

organ of corti

31

The organ of corti sits inside the _____, between the _____ and _____.

cochlear duct
scala vestibuli
scala tympani

32

The _____ pushes the hair cells against the _____ as perilymphatic pressure waves pass.

basilar membrane
tectorial membrane

33

Vertical motion of the traveling wave along the basilar membane induces a _____ between the _____ and _____.

shearing motion
basilar membrane
tectorial membrane

34

The shearing motion between the basilar membrane and the tectorial membrane bends _____ on the _____, causing hyper- or depolarization

stereocilia (hair-like structures)
hair cells

35

_____ are receptors for _hearing and constitute __% of auditory nerve.

Inner hair cells (3,500)
95

36

_____ receive efferents from the brain and amplify the _____.

Outer hair cells (12,000)
traveling wave

37

Inner hair cells send info via the _____.

auditory nerve

38

Outer hair cells get _____ in response to changes in membrane potential.

longer and shorter

39

Outer hair cells receive strong innervation from the _____ (modulation of sensitivity).

superior olive

40

There are ~_____ hair cells in each ear.

15,000

41

There are _____ stereocilia per hair cell, arrange in height and are _____.

30-100+
bilaterally symmetrical

42

_____ connect 2 adjacent stereocilia, transforming shearing motion into receptor potential.

Tip links

43

Pull on tip links opens _____, leading to _____.

cation channels
depolarization

44

Depolarization of hair cells triggers _____ release, creating an action potential which travels to the _____.

glutamate
spiral ganglion

45

Hair cells are _____ when inactive.

hyperpolarized

46

Opening and closing of channels results in a _____, enabling receptor potential to follow signals up to _____.

bi-phasic receptor potential
3 kHz

47

_____ enables hearing up to 20 kHz.

"labeled-line" coding

48

Auditory fibers are specifically tuned to _____.

characteristic frequencies

49

The auditory nerve enters the cochlear nucleus in the _____.

brainstem

50

From the _____, there are bilateral projects to the _____ and _____.

cochlear nucleus
medial
lateral superior olive

51

The _____ acts as a coincidence detector.

medial superior olive

52

The _____ uses intensity differences.

lateral superior olive

53

The _____ uses timing differences.

medial superior olive

54

The _____ is used to locate a sound source.

medial superior olive

55

Above _____, the head acts as an obstacle for short, high-frequency waves resulting in lower intensity signals in the distant ear.

2 kHz

56

Differences in intensity are used by the _____ and the _____ to locate sound.

lateral superior olive
medial nucleus of the trapezoid body

57

The inferior colliculus resides in the _____.

midbrain

58

In the _____, the _____ integrates combinations of frequencies.

auditory thalamus
medial geniculate complex

59

The primary auditory cortex is located in the _____.

temporal lobe

60

The primary auditory cortex A1 has a _____ organization (low in _____, high in _____).

tonotopic
front
back

61

The belt areas adjacent to A1 receive _____.

diffuse inputs