Flashcards in Serious Crime 014 Deck (96)
What are the two key tasks of any investigation?
- gathering and preserving evidence
List the four different types of conferences.
- initial conference
- regular conference
- debriefing conference
- phase team conferences
What are the primary functions of initial police responders at a crime scene?
- attending the scene at an early stage
- taking control of the situation
- coordinating tasks
List five types of incidents that might be reported to police and not be initially identifiable as a homicide.
- report of missing person
- sudden unexplained death of an infant
- unexplained death
- report of abduction
- report of violence where no fatalities are anticipated
- crime scene without a body present
- hit and run vehicle collision
- fatal fire
- drug related death
Explain the general investigation model.
Victim - ID and locate
Appreciation - Make an initial appreciation. Assess personal risk and then preserve the lives of others.
Witnesses - Locate and contain
Scene - Preserve
Exhibits - Note evidence and preserve any that would otherwise be lost or destroyed
Ingredients - Consider whether ingredients of alleged offence have been established
Powers - ID what powers are available and consider whether to use
Offenders - ID and apprehend suspects
What are the four basic principles to initial action in regards to the scene?
List the benefits of applying an appreciation technique.
- Informs all police what they are expected to achieve
- Establishes a sequence of activities to be carried out
- Manages risk
- Reduces uncertainty
- Eliminates duplication
- Ensures nothing is overlooked
- Effective use of resources
What are the four basic steps of an appreciation?
What is the purpose of police attendance at a death?
To investigate thoroughly and gather sufficient evidence to satisfactorily explain the circumstances of the death.
The victim's physical condition can fall into three categories. What are they?
- alive and uninjured
- alive but injured
- shows no signs of life
In order for a 'dying declaration' to be considered admissible evidence under Evidence Act 2006, s18(1)(a) , the court must be satisfied of what?
The content of the statement and the person who made it are reliable.
Police taking a 'dying declaration' must record any factors which demonstrate the reliability of the statement or its maker. List those factors/circumstances relevant under s16(1), Evidence Act.
- nature of the statement
- contents of the statement
- circumstances relation to the making of the statement
- circumstances relating to the veracity of the person
- circumstances relating to the accuracy of the observation of the person
What actions need to be taken if the victim needs to be moved?
The original position should be recorded, ideally by photo and/or video but a sketch and description should also be completed
Explain the Common Approach Path.
Controls all movement into and out of the scene using a path which avoids any route possibly taken to and from the scene by the suspect or the victim.
What is the purpose of a scene guard?
- there is no unauthorised entry into the scene
- integrity of evidence or potential evidence is secured
- intelligence opportunities are maximised
- contamination issues are managed
What details needed to be recorded by the scene guard for every person authorised to enter the scene?
- name and designation
- authority to enter the scene
- purpose of the visit
- time and entry and time of exit
List the duties of a scene guard.
1. Secure scene - Deny anyone access unless theyr are expressly authorised entry by the OC Investigation or Crime Scene Coordinator/OC Scene
2. Record details - Maintain log and note details or anyone authorised to enter
3. Control movements - Ensure everyone entering is directed to CAP and supervised
4. Record movements - Record movement and details of vehicles to, from, near in scene log
5. Brief others - Communicate info received to OC Scene or CSC.
6. Avoid disturbance - Don't enter, contaminate, interfere with scene
7. Protect scene - Be vigilant for activity such as animals
8. Brief replacement
9. Respect security - Don't discuss with witnesses, bystanders or media
10. Demonstrate courtesy - With witnesses and crowds
11. Inform others - Report actions taken to OC Scene or CSC
What action should be taken with media at a scene?
Keep them away from immediate scene and make no comment about incident. Consult with OC Investigation and explain what has happened, identify media members and location.
The OC Investigation will expect a briefing from the officer in initial charge of the incident. What should this briefing cover?
- What has occurred?
- What action has been taken?
- What has not been done?
- What needs to be done?
What kind of person should be appointed OC Body?
An experienced investigator with awareness of forensic issues.
List five responsibilities of OC Body.
- Ensure death has been certified by a doctor or qualified paramedic using the Deceased Person Certificate (POL 265)
- Maintain security and continuity of the body, samples and exhibits, from the scene to the commencement of the PM examination
- Secure and guard the body, samples and exhibits relating to the with dignity and respect
- Note and record observations relating to the body
- Note the details of medical staff or others who have attended the victim
- Record what actions have been taken by any party in relation to the body
- Establish if the body has been moved or disturbed
- Ensure the body is photographed "in situ" and consider video recording
- When authorised by OC invesigation arrange transportation of the body
- Obtain medical records of the victim for the pathologist.
Unless in an emergency, the body must not be moved until what has happened?
OC Investigation has given authority
Where the body has been moved, what does and does not happen?
- Do not attempt to restore the scene to its original unchanged condition
- Make enquiries to enable the original unchanged scene to be subsequently reconstructed and photographed if required
Before removing a body, what details need to be recorded about the position of the body?
- position of the limbs
- appearance of the body
- wounds and clothing
- direction of any trails of blood present on the body
- lividity if present
- extent of any rigor mortis present
What is the primary role of OC Body during a PM?
To observe, document and deal with exhibits associated with body in a structured methodical manner
What is the primary reason for conducting a PM?
To establish the cause of death.
What information might the pathologist's findings at a PM provide which will drive the investigation?
- determining the mode and time of death
- establishing how injuries and/or events at scene may have contributed to death of victim
- determining the nature and size of any weapons used
- determining the approx height and stature of suspect
- providing areas of interest for subsequent interviews of witnesses/suspects
- negating possible defences
- ID victim if not yet established
Where the identity of a victim cannot be established, list five alternative methods of ID.
- DNA profiling
- dental records
- eye examination records
- medical examination records
- personal effects
- facial reconstruction
When skeletal remains are found a pathologist, with the assistance of a forensic anthropologist, can provide what information?
- whether the remains are actually bones
- whether the bones are human
- the age, gender, height and race of the person