Initial police responders initial response
- Attending scene at an early stage
- Take control of the situation
- Co-ordinate tasks.
Not all incidents involving homicide are readily identifiable as such. Such incidents include:-
- Missing person
- Unexplained Death
- Unexplaind death of infant
- Violence where no fatalities are expected
- Crime scene with no body
- Hit and Run
- Fatal fire
- Drug related deaths
Police initial responsibilities
- V - Victim
- A - Appreciation
- W - Witness
- S - Scene
- E - Exhibits
- I - Ingredients
- P - Powers
- O - Offender
- A proven method of problem solving
- Follows a series of steps
- Considers all factors and weighs up all benefits and risks
- An ongoing process
Benefits of appreciation
- Informs all Police of what is expected to be achieved
- Increases chances of success
- Establishes activities
- Manages risk
- ensures nothing is overlooked
- Effective use of resources
Stages of appreciation
- A - AIM
- F - FACTORS
- CO - COURSES OPEN
- P - PLAN
Describe the investigative mentality required for serious crime investigation
No matter the circumstances of death…Always investigate thourghly and gather sufficient evidence to explain death.
Preservation of life
- Ensure own saftey
- Ensure saftey of other 1st responders
- Ensure saftey of tohers
What are the three different medical status of the victim of a serious crime?
- Alive and uninjured
- Alive but injured
- Shows no sign of life
What should you consider if you beleive the victim may die to their injuries?
Consider a recording an immediate statement wether they can sign it or not.
If the victim dies the statement may be admissable under Section 18(1) Evidence Act 2006 as long as the Court are satisfied that the content and maker of statement are reliable.
4 stages of preserving the scene
Steps when identifing/setting up the scene
- Initial assesment of scene
- Consideration of Powers
- establish parameters, start wide
- establish common approach path
- consider other scenes
- record observations
- establish scene HQ
5 Steps when securing the scene
- Consider S116, Search and Surveilance Act 2012
- Remove all from scene using CAP
- Tape off scene
- Arrange and breif scene guards
- Arrange scene logs
Steps when preserving the scene
- Record movements into and out of scene
- Preserve any evidence liekly to be damaged/destroyed
- Consider steppign plates
- Record actions in scene
What to consider while at the scene
- Initial photographs of scene
- Initial photographs of people at the scene
What to record while at the scene
- Scene log movements
- Record observations
- Photographs, consider video recording
- Identify anything moved while in scene
Crime scene logs
- Only one log to be kept at each point of entry to scene
- Log must ID keeper of the record
- Used to record names and times of all who enter or leave the scene and their reason for being there.
What to consider when dealing with witnesses at the scene.
- TEDS questions to establish what has happened.
- A witness may have been so close to events that forensic evidence may have transferred to them, eg - fibers, body fluids, glass.
- Avoid cross contamination issues by using different vehicles and interview rooms when dealing with multiple witnesses and victims.
What to consider when dealing with suspects at a scene.
- Apprehension of suspect is a priority
- If little time delay, suspect may still be in area or return to scene
- Sepereate from others at scene
- Consider condition of the suspect (Drunk/Injurered etc)
- ASAP remove from scene by consent or arrest
- Consider using officers who have not entered scene to prevent cross contamination
What to consider in realtion to Media at the scene
- Keep them away from the immediate scene
- Make no comment
- Inform the OC investigation
Brieifing OC investigation before leaving scene
- What happened
- What has been done
- What is being done
- What has to be done
Who should be appointed OC body?
An experianced investigator with awarness of forensic issues
List responsibilities of the OC body
Ensure death has been certified by a doctor or qualified paramedic
Note details of medical staff or others who have attended the victim
Secure and guard the body, and body samples and any exhibits related to the body with dignity and respect
Note and record observations relating to the body
Establish if body has been moved or disturbed
Record what actions have been taken by any party in relation to the body
Ensure body is photographed in situ and consider video recording
On authority of OC investigation arrange transport of body to mortuary
Maintain security and continuity of the body, samples and exhibits from the scene to the start of the post mortem
Complete sudden death procedures
On authority of OC investigation arrange for formal identification of body
Obtain historical medical records of the victim for the pathologist
Attend with the OC
Attend briefing of pathologist
Ensure police photographer takes photos at all stages of post-mortem, they will be directed by pathologist
Arrange for fingerprints and palm prints as required
Preserve evidence from body
Record, label and secure all samples and exhibits
Attend debrief of pathologist and record findings, on direction of OC or pathologist
Ensure cultural responsibilities have been addressed
Appreciation prior to body removal - Facotrs to consider
- Notification to and from Coroner
- Views of Pathologist and ESR
- Consultation with other experts
- Requirments for any action taken prior to removal of body
- Best method and route to take body
- Supervision of body removal
- Chain of custody of body from scene to mortuary
- Safe custody of exhibits
- Family and any cultural considerations
- Record all SOP’s (paper suits, gloves, mask etc)
Establishing if the body has been moved
- Record movements of body
- do not attempt to restore scene to original unchanged condition
- make enquiries to enable the original unchanged scene to be subsequently reconstructed and photgraphed, if required
Steps for moving body
- Not to be moved without authority from OC investigation
- Record position of body by sketch and photo in situ
- Consider recording position of body using mesaurements from at least two fixed positions
- Record all details of body including
- Position of limbs
- Appearance of body
- wounds and clothing
- direction of blood trails
- Extent of rigor mortis present
- Consider health risks posed by handling body
- Cover hands, feet and head of body with paper bags and secure with tape. Consult with OC Scene and Investigation prior to this
- Ensure clothing on bosy is not contaminated by contact with foreign obects
- Wrap body in plastic sheet and place in body bag
- carefull search where body lay
- retain all sheets, bags and other materials used as exhibits
- Arrange for contracted undertaker to transport body
- Ensure security and continuity of body
Role of OC Body during post mortem
Observe, document and deal with exhibits in a methodial manner
Purpose of Post mortem
- To establish caue of death
- Mode and time of death
- Establish how injuries or events have contributed to death of victim
- determine the nature and sie of any weapon used
- determine the approximate height and stature of suspect
- providing areas of interest for interviews of witnesses or suspects
- negating possible defences
- identiying the victim
Who may attend Post Mortem
(S38 of Coroners Act 2006)
- Assisting Pathologest
- Dr who treated deceased
- Dr, nurse or funeral director reresenting deceased
- A dr represening the interests of suspect who has or may be charged in relation to the death
- Any other Dr or trainee Dr
- Any other person authorised by Coroner
What Police members should attend Post Mortem?
- OC Investigtion
- OC Body
- OC exhibits if required
- Police photographer
- SOCO or fingerprint officer if required
Consider authority from Coroner to allow who to attend Post Mortem?
- ESR forensic scientist
- Crown Soliciter
What other experts should be considered regarding the conduct of a post mortem?
- Medical Illustrator
- Ballistics expert
- Crime Scene Examiner
- Disaster Victim Identification
Where applicable, the assistance of specialist advisors should be sought to assist with cultural issues relating to the victim or others involved in the investigation. This will assist the progress of investigation, establish positive relations and avoid the potential for any offence caused
What to consider when asking someone to formally ID the deceased and what other methods of ID are there?
- Fully inform what is required of them and what to expect when they see deceased
- dental records
- eye examination records
- medical examination records
- facial reconstruction
- personal effects
What can an Anthropologist tell you about any skeletal remains found?
- Wether they remains actually are bones
- wether bones are human
- age, gender, height and race of person
Taking notes during PO
The OC body must NOT make any notes unless specifically directed to by OC investigation or/and Pathologist
Photographing the body
- Before its stripped
- After it is stripped
- Any wounds, marks, injuries, unusual features
Pathologists de - brief
OC body to record findings and cause of death on direction of OC investigtion and/or pathologist
Role of Family Liasion Officer
Day to day management of partnership between family and the police investigation. The primary function of FLO is that of an investigator and not a support person.
Family Liaison Plan
- Selection of FLO and criteria emplyed for selection
- Exit plan for FLO
- Objectives of the family liaison
- Asses most appropriate methods of conducting interviews with famil members
- Information to be released and withheld from the family
- requests made by family
- Complaints by family
- Any member of family who is considered a suspect
- Liaison with victim support and other support services
Exit plan of FLO
Exit plan must be developed before deployment of FLO and be communicated to family and commencement of deployment.
Define ‘Family’ in relation to the deployment of FLO
- Includes Partners, parents, siblings, children, guardians, whanau and any others who have had a direct and close relationship with the victim.
- Include ‘chosen’ family
- Should reflect the victims culture and lifestyle
In cases involving Maori victims an Iwi liasion officer should be involved as early as possible.
FLO actions on appointment
- Liase closely with OC investigation regarding parameters of information to be shared with family
- familiarise themselves with enquiry.
- familiarise themselves with any cultural, lifestyle or religous requirements
- fa,iliarie themselves with all intel concerning family
- establish what contact family has had with police since incident
- establish what info has been shared with family
- establish what info is already in the public domain.
Explain Victim impact statements
Must be available for sentencing and be no older than 28 days
Purpose of area canvass
Often links exist between the scene of a crime and the offender, victim and wtinesses. Area canvass presents a high likelyhood of identifying offender, witnesses, evidence or establishing significant facts
Objectives of area canvass
- Identifying the offender
- identifying an locating evidence such as vehicles, clothing or weapons
- Identifying witnesses
- Gathering information
Preparing for area canvass
OC investigation OC area canvass and OC suspects should conduct recconnaissance of the area and conduct appreciation and set parameters and objectives of canvass
When should an area canvass take place?
The area canvass should be conducted at the same time as the original offence occurred.
What to consider when setting location parameters for the area canvass?
- Premises within line of sight of scenes
- Access and egress routes to and from scenes
- Location where offender may have lain in wait
- Loation where Victim was last seen
- Locations frequented by victim
What should officers conducting area canvass be aware of in relation to a risk.
- Violent offenders
- Persons wanted by police for other crimes or WTA
- Groups with particular linguistic or cultural needs
- Local incidents or issues residents may raise with Police
Name some resources and canvass tools to consider as OC area canvass
- Street maps
- Areial photographs
- Geological information
- Council records
- Police intelligence systems
If evidence of possible probative value is uncovered……
Obtain via Formal written statement rather than notebook form
Area canvass can be a labourious task…How would OC area canvas ensure staff remain focused
Keep morale high by providing regular feedback and updating them on progress made by other teams
How does OC Area Canvass monitor progress made with canvass
- Shade in map to show households completed
- Evaluate quality of work
- Identify lines of enquiry for 2IC
- Facilitate detailed recording of progress.
- Fill in master record to show….
- Addresses visited
- occupants interviewed
- documentation completed
- any relevant comments made
What other points can be considered by OC Area Canvass to benefit the canvass
- Use of experts
- Use of aide memoire and script
- Other options
- Poster campaign
- Mail drop
- High profile Police presence
What should be included in the area canvass final report?
- Summary of action taken
- Significant findings
- Any action undertaken that was outside original plan
Police who deal with the inital informant……
should be debriefed and a full record made of their account. This record becomes crucial if the informant later becomes a suspect.
Benefit of a prompt preliminary interview with witness
- Early identification or arrest of suspect
- recovery of evidence or information relevant to offence
- Prevention of immediate disposal or destruction of evidence
- Prevention of comission of other offences
Issues to be considered when appointing a witness interviewer
- Level of training of interviewer
- Level 3 or level 2 when not available
- Forensic child interviewer for child or intellectualy impared
- experiance of the officer
- suitablilty of the officer. (past experiance, welfare issues)
What should be considered in regards to risk for witnesses
Risk assesment must be conducted to establish risk of intimidation or physical harm
List some responsibilities Police have to witnesses
- Witness intimidation - maintain contact with witness to become aware of any intimidation and take nessercery steps
- Witness control - Ensure witnesses hae no contact with jurors, discuss case in public areas while waiting to give evidence or discuss the case with witnesses waiting after giving evidence
What are some things to consider in relation to alibi witnesses
- Alibi witnesses notified under S22 of disclosure act must only be interviewed under direction of the crown
- Investigator must make enquities to determine the veracity of alibi
- must conduct inquiries by OC investigation and crown including NIA checks
- Forward results of enquiries to crown soliciter including any statements obtained
Purpose of OC suspects
- Supervising members of suspects team
- Obtaining information about suspects and POI’s
- Profiling and investigating all suspects and POI’s to establish involvement or eliminate them from inquiry
- Seeke evidence to cover ingredients of offence
- Mitigating and dealing with possible defences
- Providing a basis for further investigation
Who is responsible for determining status of suspects
OC investigation after consultation with OC suspects
What should be covered off in the intial breifing to suspects team?
- Circumstances of offence including the analysis of scene and witness evidence
- Full details of all POI’s or suspects.
- Details of any descriptions of the suspect provided by witnesses
- Wether any MO has been identified
Things to consider when preparing to interview a Suspect.
- Liaise with OC investigation regarding selection of interviewer
- Establish the status of interviewee
- Consider persons requirments such as linguistic, cultural, medical or any impairments
- Consult with legal advisors and interview experts
- Ensure interviewer is fully briefed and familier with procedures in the investigative interviewing suspect guide.
- Discuss with interviewer the ingredients that need to be established, suspects background and possible alibis and motives.
- Ensure a detailed plan has been produced
During any interview the OC Suspects must ensure that:
- The interview is conducted in accordence with the ‘Investigative interviewing suspect guide’.
- THe interview is monitered by a supervisor or experienced Detective
- Ensure an explanation is sought from suspect in relation to any exhibits found.
In investigating any alibi offered, the OC suspects must:
- Make enquireis of people other than the persons whose particulars have been supplied to confirm or rebut evidence to support alibi.
- Complete enquiries to establish where the supect was at the time of the offence, who they werewith and what they were doing.
- Wherever possible, corroboration of the alibi provided by the suspect should be sought from forensic or other sources that are independant of suspect
Functions of the File manager
- Assist in establishing and maintaining the investigation HQ
- Operate the paper flow and associated structure in accordence with the Serious Crime Document Management System outlined in the Serious Crime Template.
- Manage the electronic and physical files relating to investigation
- Support 2IC by reading all documents for the purpose of highlighting important information to 2IC.
- Assist the 2IC with the ID and recording of evidential material.
- Complete a synopsis of all documents received, excluding documents relating to covert Police activities.
- Ensure flow of information.
- Assist with preperation of prosecution file.
- Assist with management of trial.
The disclosure manager must:
- Ensure all relevant and discoverable material is provided to defence counsel
- ensure all relevent and non-discoverable material is identified, listed and defence advised
- continually assess the risk to ensure that non-discoverable material is identified and not disclosed.
- Continually review to ensure that ongoing lawful justification to withold exists for each document that is withheld.
- Ensure that robust systems are employed to record disclosure decisions and actions.
- Manage disclosure timeframes
- Retain and file all correspondence with defence counsel, both incoming and outgoing, in the 50000 series catogary.
- Create a record in NIA of the fact of disclosure against the charge(s) and make a breif record of delivery of initial disclosure in NIA. Record in NIA that the disclosure index is held in the operation file and location of the file.
nt of the rolde, the Disclosure Manager must:
- Read Disclosure Managers desk file
- Access the current Serious Crime Template downloaded to the local district shared drive for use during investigation.
- Repor tot 2IC to receive a breifing, taskings, establishing what information is and is not discoverable
All communication with defence counsel should be conducted through:
- The 2IC
- Crown Soliciter
Outline Police obligations to the defence counsel when a new consel is appointed
All previously disclosed material to be provided to new consel either by providing the new consel with a fresh copy of all previously disclosed material or by obtaining confirmation in writing from the new consel that they have received all previously disclosed material from the otugoing consel.
Describe section 10(4) of the criminal disclosure act
- Disclosure may be supplied in any form….
- Provided it will be readily accessible to defendant.
Consideration must be given to whether a defendant has ‘ready’ acces to a computer if given in electronic form.
Who should preferably be appointed as OC exhibits?
A qualified Detective with experience in:
- Mass exhibit handling
- Forensic Principles
- Methods of exhibit recovery
- Approved procedures for packaging and security of evidence
- managing contamination and cross contamination issues
- use of standard documentation as contained in the serious crime template
Purpose of OC Exhibits?
- Responsible for establishing and maintaing exhibit management systmens.
- Maintaining physical security and continuity of exhibits.
- Accuratly record exhibits and assist in court process.
- Establish the
- Evidential value of each exhibit
- investigate opportunities presented by each exhibit
- further enquiries needed
The OC exhbitis should only accept an exhibit if:
- The exhibit label contains the exhibit number and the name of the operation. Other details such as a description of the item, the details of person finding it, the time, dates and location are recorded on exhibit schedule.
- The property is correctly packaged and sealed and the exhibit label is visible and secured on package
- Any prompt action necessary to preserve the exhibit has been taken.
OC Exhibits respnsibility in relation to examination of exhibits.
- Must ensure all exhibits are fully examined
- Determine, plan and record the examination and interrogation of every exhibit and establish its relevance to the investigation.
Purpose of Forensic Strategy Meetings?
- Held to determine which exhibit or other forensic examinations are required and the priority of those examinations.
Topics to be covered in a Forensic Strategy Meeting?
- What examinations ESR and others could conduct on exhibits
- Priority each examination should receive
- Whether any further work is needed to assist a reconstruction
- An agreed reconstruction of the events relevant to the crime under investigation
What must the OC exhibits consider when preparing for trial?
The significance of any forensic examinations and establish the most appropriate manner in which exhibits and results are to be presented in trial.
Explain the chain of custody and what must each person in the chain be able to demonstrate?
CHain of custody includes every individual who has had custody of an exhibit, from the time it was discovered until the time it is produced in Court.
- When they received custody and from whom
- where and how exhibit was securely stored
- when, why and how the exhibit was moved from one place to another
- how the exhibit was treated and safeguarded
- when and why they transferred custody of an exhibit to another person and to whom.
State the exhibit number ranges.
- Admin - 10000
- Victim - 15000
- Witnesses - 20000
- Area Canvass - 25000
- Scenes - 30000
- Suspects - 70000
What should be contained on the Scene exhibit schedule?
- Exhibit number
- Description of exhibit
- Name of Operation
- Location of the scene
- Exact location where exhbit was found
- Name of finder
- Date and time it was seized
- Relevant signatures
Describe the exhibit register
It is an electronic document which forms the master record of every exhibit obtained during an investigation.
The OC Exhibits is responsible for entering information from each Scene exhibit schedule onto register,
To protect integrity of register only the OC exhibits and typist should have password access to make alterations to it although every member should be able to view it.