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Flashcards in Session 2 Deck (20):
1

What evidence should be used in evidence based medicine?

Cost effectiveness
Effectiveness

2

Give examples of where clinicians have failed to use evidence based medicine

Lidocaine - still used it even though it showed placebo had better survival rates and it increased mortality
Magnesium sulphate given and shown to work in eclamptic seizures in pregnant women since 60's yet in 90's it still wasn't being used

3

Where does evidence based medicine derive from?

Archie Cochrane
RCT's

4

What is significant about the Cochrane logo?

Review of corticosteroids for pregnant women giving birth prematurely - 7 RCTs

5

Why are systematic reviews needed?

lit reviews are poor, subjective, biased
highlights gaps
help address clinical uncertainty

6

Why are systematic reviews useful to clinicians?

Provides information in one place
Reduces delays between implementation
Converted into guidelines
Prevent biased decisions
Up to date conclusions

7

Where is evidence available?

Cochrane library
NHS health technology and assessment programme
Medical journals
NHS centre for reviews and dissemination

8

What are the 2 types of criticism of evidence based practise?

Practical and Philosophical

9

Why is evidence not used?

Don't know about it
Don't use it
Systems don't support it
Commissioners don't support it
Resources not available

10

What is quantitative research?

Numerical data
Begins with an hypothesis
Allows conlusions and relationships
Reliable and repeatable

11

Name some study designs of quantitative research

Experimental
Cohort
Questionnaires
Case control
Official statistics
National surveys

12

What can questionnaires be used for?

Measuring risk factors
Valid and reliable
Knowledge and attitudes
Satisfaction with health services

13

What is quantitative research good at?

Describing
Measuring
Relationships
Comparisons

14

What are the weaknesses of quantitative research?

inappopriate categories
don't allow people to express things the way they want
can't access all information
can't establish causality

15

Define ethnography

Studying human behavior in it's natural context

16

What is qualitative research?

This is observing what people do
aims to make sense of phenomena
valuable insight into behaviour

17

What can CASP assess?

Rigour, credibility and relevance

18

What are the strengths of qualitative research?

Understand perspective
Access information not available by quantitative methods
Explain relationships

19

What are the weaknesses of qualitative research?

Consistent relationships
Generalisability is difficult

20

How do you choose a study design?

Look at topic
Research teams expertise
Time and money available
Funders or audience