Session 2 - Anatomy of the Resp System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Session 2 - Anatomy of the Resp System Deck (21)
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Which ribs are true ribs? Which are false? Which are floating ribs?

True ribs- 1 to 7

False - 8 to 12

Floating - 11 and 12


Why are false ribs called so? Why are floating ribs called so?

False ribs indirectly attach to sternum

Floating ribs dont attach to sternum


What is the name of the area along which the intercostal vein, artery and nerves run? Where is it found

costal groove, just under a rib


Which ribs are considered typical ribs? What are the features of a typical rib?

• Ribs 3 to 9 are considered typical

• Contain 2 articular facets separated by a crest

• Costal groove protects the neurovascular supply of the thorax


Describe the features of rib 1 and 2

Rib 1:

• Shorter and wider than other ribs.

• Only one facet on head for articulation

• Superior surface marked by two grooves which make way for subclavian vessels.


Rib 2:

• Thinner and longer than rib 1

• Two articular facets on the head

• Roughened area on upper surface for serratus anterior attachment.


Describe the features of ribs 11 and 12

No neck, floating, only one facet used to articulate with corresponding vertebrae.


What are the 3 Intercostal muscles? Put them in anterior to posterior order. What direction do their fibres run and what is their function?

External - innermost - internal


1) External intercostals – run inferior and anteriorly. Innervated by intercostal nerves and elevate the ribs to expand volume of thoracic cage during forced inspiration

2) Innermost intercostals – Run inferior and posteriorly. Innervated by intercostal nerve and depress the ribs to reduce the volume of thoracic cage during forced inspiration.

3) Internal intercostals – Same as innermost.


State the vertebral levels at which there are openings in the diaphragm for: a) Vena cava b) Oesophagus c) Aorta

a) T8 (8 letters)

b) T10 (10 letters)

c) T12


What nerve supplies the diaphragm?

phrenic - c3, 4, 5 keeps you alive


What order do the intercostal vasculature run, superior to inferior?


Vein Artery Nerve


What is the function of the pleural sac?

• Allows pleural surfaces to slide on each other

• Forces between fluid molecules also resist the 2 surfaces being pulled apart

• Therefore when thorax expands along with parietal pleura the visceral pleura and lung expands with it.


What is contained in the mediastinum?

Central compartment in the thoracic cavity that contains the heart, great vessels, trachea, oesophagus, phrenic and cardiac nerve, thymus and thoracic duct.


Which muscles are used during quiet respiration?

Inspiration - external intercostal to elevate and contract diaphragm

Expiration - elastic recoil of chest wall and lungs


Which muscles are used during forced inspiration?

External intercostal, sternocleidomastoid, scalene muscles of neck


Which muscles are used during forced expiration

Internal and innermost intercostal, anterior abdominal wall muscles


Define Functional residual capacity. What is its average value?

• Volume of air in the lungs at the end of passive expiration

• At resting this is around 2l.

• Expiratory reserve volume + residual volume


Define residual volume

• Volume left in lungs at maximal expiration


Define vital capacity. What is its average value?

• Measured from maximal inspiration to maximal expiration

• About 5l in adults.


Define inspiratory capacity. What is its average value?

Measured from end of quiet expiration to maximal inspiration.

Biggest breath that can be taken from resting expiratory level. av value 3L


Define serial dead space, physiological dead space, and distributive dead space.

Serial - Dead space in airways

Distributive - Dead space not in airways, e.g. dead alveoli

Physiological - Serial + distributive