Which part is the lamina of the vertebra?
Between the spinous process and the transverse process
Which part is the pedicle of the vertebra?
Between the transverse process and the vertebral bod
What name is giving to the joints between the articular facets ofadjacent vertebrae?
Describe some distinctive features of cervical vertebrae.
Triangular vertebral foramen Short, square vertebral body Transverse foramina in the transverse processes Bifid spine (except C1 and C7) Atlas and axis (C1 and C2) are specialized for movement
Describe some distinctive features of thoracic vertebrae.
Bigger than cervical vertebrae Circular vertebral foramen Heart shaped vertebral body Spinous process pointing sharply downwards Transverse costal facets (for rib articulation)
Describe some distinctive features of lumbar vertebrae.
LARGE Articular facets are angled to limit movement Thin, long transverse processes (except L5) Triangular vertebral foramen Cylindrical vertebral body
How many bones fuse to form the sacrum?
Describe the structure of the sacrum.
Concave anterior surface Triangular in shape L shaped articular facets (for articulation with pelvic bones)
How many bones fuse to form the coccyx?
3-4 Vertebral arches and canal are absent
What two types of joint are found between vertebrae?
Symphyses – between adjacent vertebral bodies Synovial Joints – between articular processes
How many joints are there between two typical vertebrae?
6 2 symphyses (above and below) 4 synovial joints (2 superior and 2 inferior)
Between which vertebrae do you find intervertebral discs?
C2-S1 There is no intervertebral disc between C1 and C2 (you instead get atlanto-axial joint capsules)
What are the two parts of the intervertebral disc?
Nucleus pulposus Annulus fibrosus
Describe how problems with the intervertebral disc can lead to potential clinical problems.
Degenerative changes in the annulus fibrosus can lead to herniation of the nucleus pulposus, which can then impinge on spinal nerves or thespinal cord
Name the two ligaments that rung along the length of the vertebral bodies from the skull to the sacrum.
Anterior and Posterior Longitudinal Ligaments
Which ligament is typically damaged in whiplash?
Anterior Longitudinal Ligament
What is the name given to the upper art of the posterior longitudinal ligament going from C2 to the skull?
Which ligaments are pierced in lumbar puncture and where are they positioned relative to the vertebral bodies?
Supraspinous - between tips of spinous processes
Interspinous - between the spinous processes
Ligamentum flavum – found between the laminae of adjacent vertebrae
Name the triangular sheet-like structure found in the upper vertebral column. Where is it attached?
Ligamentum nuchae – attached from C7 to the occipital bone
What it continuous with the ligamentum nuchae and which part of the vertebrae is this attached to?
Supraspinous ligament It is connects to the spinous processes from C7 to the sacrum
Which ligament lies between adjacent spinous processes?
What are the three categories of muscles in the back and which muscles fall into each of these categories?
- Latissimus dorsi
- Levator scapulae
- Rhomboid minor
- Rhomboid major
- Serratus posterior superior
- Serratus posterior inferior
- Erector spinae
Describe the flexibility of the cervical spine in terms of flexion/extension, lateral flexion and rotation.
Cervical spine can comfortably flex, extend, laterally flex and rotate. The articular surfaces between vertebrae are almost horizontal, so all these movement are possible. Also the neck has less surrounding tissue than other parts of the spine
Describe the flexibility of the upper thoracic spine (T1-T6).
NO flexion/extension Some lateral flexion Some rotation The articular surfaces are almost vertical, which doesn’t allow for flexion/extension.
Describe the flexibility of the lower thoracic spine (T7-T12).
Some flexion/extension Good lateral flexion Good rotation
Describe the flexibility of the lumbar spine (L1-sacrum).
NO rotation Good flexion/extension Good lateral flexion Their articular surfaces are curled around the articular surfaces of the adjacent superior vertebrae, ensuring no rotation.
Describe the shape of the atlas (C1).
It has NO vertebral body It consists of two lateral masses with an anterior and posterior arch
Describe the articulations of the atlas.
The two lateral masses articulate superiorly with the occipital condyles and inferiorly with the superior articular surfaces of C2
Describe the structure of the axis (C2).
It is a typical cervical vertebra with the body extended upwards to form the dens (odontoid process)
Which ligaments are attached to the dens?
The transverse ligament of the atlas keeps the dens in place, against the articular surface on the posterior surface of the anterior arch of theatlas. Alar ligaments are attached to the superiolateral surfaces of the dens and the medial occipital condyles. The alar ligaments prevent excessive rotation of the head. There are also longitudinal fascicles of the cruciform ligament (this crosses over the transverse ligament of the atlas to form the cruciate ligament)