Session 3: Neck and Face Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Session 3: Neck and Face Deck (30)
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What are the three main functions of the neck?

Structural – support and move the head Visceral functions Conduit for blood vessels and nerves


How are the components of these functions divided structurally in the neck?

Structural – inside prevertebral fascia Visceral – inside or associated with pretracheal fascia Blood vessels and nerves – carotid sheaths


What are the two large muscles that are found on the anterior and posterior sides of the neck?

Anterior – sternocleidomastoid Posterior – trapezius


What are the contents of the carotid sheath?

Internal jugular vein Common carotid artery Vagus nerve


What are the contents of the visceral fascia?

Oesophagus Trachea Thyroid Gland


What is the name given to the fascia between the posterior aspect of the oesophagus and the anterior part of the prevertebral fascia?

Buccopharyngeal fascia


Which fascia splits in two around the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius?

Investing layer


What important structures are at each of the following levels: a. C2 b. C3 c. C4 d. C6 e. C7

a. C2 Superior cervical ganglion b. C3 Body of hyoid c. C4 Birfurcation of common carotid Upper border of thyroid cartilage d. C6 Cricoid cartilage Middle cervical ganglion e.C7 Inferior cervical ganglion


What are the two triangles of the neck? State their borders.

Anterior triangle – mandible, anterior border of sternocleidomastoid and midline Posterior triangle – posterior border of sternocleidomastoid, anterior border of trapezius and clavicle


What are the main muscles in the anterior triangle and which nerves innervate them? 

Platysma – facial Mylohyoid – mandibular division of trigeminal Digastric muscle – anterior belly (mandibular division of trigeminal) + posterior belly (facial) Infrahyoid muscles (strap muscles) 


Which nerves innervate each of the four infrahyoid muscles?

  • Omohyoid – ansa cervicalis
  • Sternohyoid – ansa cervicalis
  • Sternothyroid – ansa cervicalis
  • THYROHYOID – C1 fibres via the hypoglossal nerve


The posterior triangle consists mainly of blood vessels and nerves. Which blood vessels and nerves are in the posterior triangle?

External jugular vein Subclavian artery Trunks of brachial plexus Phrenic nerve Spinal accessory nerve


Which other smaller nerves are found in this area?

Lesser occipital nerve Greater auricular nerve Transverse cervical nerve Supraclavicular nerves


Where do the trunks of the brachial plexus emerge?

Posterior to scalenus anterior


Where are the subclavian artery and vein relative to the scalene muscles?

Subclavian artery = posterior to scalenus anterior Subclavian vein = anterior to scalenus anterior


Where is the phrenic nerve relative to the scalene muscles?

Phrenic nerve lies on the anterior surface of scalene anterior


Which spinal nerves contribute to the superior, middle and inferior trunks of the brachial plexus?

Superior = C5 + C6 Middle = C7 Inferior = C8 + T1


Which spinal nerves contribute to the phrenic nerve and what isits main function?

C3, C4 and C5 Motor supply of the diaphragm Sensory innervation to the diaphragmatic pleura and peritoneum


What is platysma innervated by?

Facial nerve (cervical branch)


What is mylohyoid innervated by?

Mandibular division of trigeminal nerve


What are the anterior and posterior bellies of the digastric muscle innervated by?

Anterior – mandibular division of trigeminal nerve Posterior – facial nerve


What are the infrahyoid muscles innervated by?

Ansa cervicalis = omohyoid + sternothyroid + sternohyoid C1 fibres via hypoglossal nerve = thyrohyoid


What are the clinical applications of a carotid pulse?

Measuring pulse rate


List the main sites of access for central venous lines.

Internal jugular (most common) Subclavian vein Femoral vein


What are the uses of central venous lines?

Long-term access e.g. for chemotherapy drugs Administering drugs that can cause phlebitis Parenteral nutrition Monitoring blood pressure


What are the complications of insertion of central venous lines?

Accidental arterial puncture Tracheal injury Arrhythmia Emboli Infection Pneumothorax or haemothorax


Where does the accessory nerve exit the skull?

The accessory nerve begins in the upper spinal cord and ascends to enter the skull through the foramen magnum The accessory nerve then leaves via the jugular foramen


What does the accessory nerve innervate?

Trapezius Sternocleidomastoid


How would you test the function of the accessory nerve?

  • Ask the patient to shrug their shoulders and hold it there
  • Also ask them to turn head against resistance


What are the infrahyoid muscles and where are they attached?

Omohyoid – superior border of scapula near scapular notch --> hyoid Sternohyoid – sternum --> hyoid Sternothyroid – sternum --> thyroid cartilage Thyrohyoid – thyroid cartilage --> hyoid