Session 5 - Lay beliefs; Health Promotion Flashcards Preview

Semester 4 - HADSOC > Session 5 - Lay beliefs; Health Promotion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 5 - Lay beliefs; Health Promotion Deck (27):

What three things can lay beliefs have an impact on?

o Impact on health behaviour
o Impact on illness behaviour
o Impact on compliance/non-compliance (adherence) with treatment


Give three types of people and their response to health problems

o Deniers – “I don’t have asthma”
o Distancers – “I don’t have proper asthma”
o Pragmatists – Only use preventative medication when asthma was bad


What is a lay belief?

o Constructed by people to understand and make sense of areas in their lives about which they have no specialised knowledge


What is the danger of a lay belief?

o Medical information may be rejected if it is incompatible with competing ideas for which people consider there is good evidence
 E.g. accepted that smoking causes lung cancer, but not cervical as people don’t understand the link therefore do not believe


What is lay epidemiology?

An attempt to under why and how illness happens
- Combination of sources (person, familial and social)


What does lay epidemiology seek to explain?

Why things happened to a particular person at a particular time


What happens when lay epidemiology does not fit?

Randomness and fate to blame


Give three different perceptions of health

Negative definition
Functional definition
Positive definition


What is a negative definition of health?

 Health is the absence of illness
 More commonly held belief in lower socioeconomic groups


What is a functional definition of health?

Health is the ability to do certain things


What is a positive definition of health?

 Health is a state of wellbeing and fitness
 More commonly held belief in higher socioeconomic groups


What is health behaviour?

o Activity undertaken for the purpose of maintaining health and preventing illness


What is illness behaviour?

o Activity of ill person to define illness and seek solution


What is lay care?

Use of over the counter medications


What is the ilness iceberg?

 Most symptoms never get to a doctor – The ‘Symptom/Illness Iceberg’


What is sick role behaviour?

o Formal response to symptoms, including seeking professional help.


What is the lay referral system?

o Up to 75% of those visiting a doctor have discussed their symptoms with another person.
o The Lay Referral System is the chain of advice-seeking contacts which the sick make with other lay people prior to (or instead of) seeking help from health care professionals.


What is a healthcare determinant?

Determinants of health are a range of factors that have a powering and cumulative effect on the health of the population, because they shape behaviours and environmental risk factors


Give four health care determinants

o Poverty
o Social Exclusion
o Poor Housing
o Poor health systems


What is primary prevention?

o Aims to prevent the onset of disease or injury
o Reduce exposure to risk factors
 Immunisation
 Quitting smoking


What is secondary prevention?

o Aims to detect and treat a disease (or its risk factors) at an early stage
o Prevent progression
 Monitoring blood pressure
 Screening for cervical cancer


What is tertiary prevention?

o Aims to minimise effects of established disease
 Steroids for asthma
 β-Blockers for high blood pressure
 Renal transplants for renal failure


Give five health promotion strategies

o Medical or Preventive
o Behaviour Change
o Educational
o Empowerment
o Social Chang


Give six dilemmas of health promotion

Ethics of interfering in peoples lives
Victim blaming
Mistaken belief that giving people information gives them the power to change
Reinforcing of negative sterotypes
Unequal distribution of responsibility
Prevention paradox


What s candidacy?

If people don’t see themselves as a ‘candidate’ for a disease they may not take on board the relevant health promotion messages.


Give four difficulties of evaluating outcomes of health promotion?

Design of the intervention
Confounding factors
High cost


What are three timing difficulties of evaluating outcomes of health promotion?

o Results may differ depending on when you evaluate
o Decay – Some interventions might take a long time to have effect
o Delay – Some interventions wear off rapidly (e.g. giving up smoking)