Describe the relationship that a nutritional adviser of trainer should attempt to establish with a client.
It is imperative that a trusting and supportive relationship is established
What is the purpose of an informed consent form?
An informed consent form explains to the client the reason the information is being collected and how it will be used.
Identify the ways to ascertain a client’s nutritional habits.
- Questionnaires (e.g. lifestyle, PAR-Q, medical, nutritional).
- Food diary.
- Interview / consultation.
- Short- and long-term observation (e.g. habits, reactions, behaviours)
- Nutritional testing / assessing.
Identify the things a nutritional adviser or trainer should consider gathering information from a client.
- Communicate clearly and effectively (knowledge shared is understood).
- Generate enthusiasm and motivation for change.
- Being aware of personal attitudes and beliefs.
- Understanding the constraints on an individuals health and nutrition behaviour.
- Foresee any obstacles that may reduce the clients adherence to nutritional change.
- Determine a variety of options suitable to the clients lifestyle.
In order to meet confidentiality requirements as a data controller, identify the things a nutritional adviser of trainer should do.
As a data controller, nutritionist or trainer must satisfy two obligations:
- Adhere to the following principles:
- Info is fairly and lawfully processed.
- The info is used for the limited purpose intended & known by the client.
- There is adequate info for the required purpose.
- The info held is all relevant & not beyond the purpose or needs.
- All info is accurate and current.
- Info should only be store or held on file for a required time period.
- Info is stored in fire-proof lockable filling cabinets or under password protection on a computer.
- Info should not breach an individuals rights.
- Info should not be passed on without the individuals permission & not used outside the European Economic Area unless adequate protection is in place.
- Notify/register with the Information Commissioner.
Identify the barriers a client may have to changing their nutritional habits.
- Time available to purchase food and prepare meals.
- Family commitments that hinder efforts.
- Employment commitments and degree of priority.
- Potential support networks.
- Social habits and activities that support or hinder activity levels.
- Health problems that may require more specialist care.
Identify the points an individual should consider when using a food diary.
- Complete the diary after each meal, not at the end of the day.
- Record accurately what was eaten.
Identify four common nutritional goals.
- Body fat reduction or weight loss.
- Improved muscle tone.
- Improve eating patterns.
- Fuel exercise and/or sport.
What dose SMART stand for in relation to goal setting?
S – specific statement of the objective.
M – measurable in order to provide comparative progress.
A – agreed by client involved.
R – realistic whilst still providing a challenge.
T – time-bound to focus effort and attention.
Give an example of a nutritional goal that follows the SMART principle.
A client who wishes to lose 10kg in weight, for example, a realistic and healthy rate of loss should be specified. Losing at a rate of approx. 0.5kg per week should be achievable in 20 weeks.
What is the performance equation?
Potential – Psychological Interference = Performance
Give examples of psychological interference.
- Low motivation
- Low confidence
- Lack of focus
- Limiting beliefs and behaviours
What are the distinct stage of change we go through when adopting a new behaviour?
Not thinking – thinking
Maintenance – stable or relapse
Relapse – thinking (repeat)
Identify the basic motivational strategies a nutritional adviser of trainer can employ to support a client through a change in eating habits.
- Behavioural contracts
- Provide praise
- Encourage paired or group participation
- Periodic testing for positive reinforcement
- Use behavioural change strategies
- Charting progress
- Reward system
Who else might a nutritional adviser of trainer liaise with when supporting a client to make a change?
- Fitness instructor
- Personal trainer
Which special populations are more prone to nutritional deficiencies?
Children, the elderly and pregnant women.
Physical signs and symptoms of anorexia.
- Extreme weight loss
- Insufficient growth
- Constipation or abdominal pains
- Dizzy spells
- Hair loss
- Poor circulation
- Dry, rough, discoloured skin
- Loss of bone density
Psychological signs and symptoms of anorexia.
- Intense fear of gaining weight
- Distorted perception of body
- Denial of problem
- Mood swings
- Can be obsessed with food and calorie counting
Behavioural signs and symptoms of anorexia.
- Rituals attached to eating
- Wearing baggy clothes
- Vomiting and/or taking laxatives
Long-term signs and symptoms of anorexia.
- Difficulty in becoming pregnant
Physical signs and symptoms of bulimia nervosa.
- Frequent weight changes
- Sore throat and tooth decay
- Swollen salivary glands
- Swollen face
- Poor skin
- Lethargy and tiredness
Psychological signs and symptoms of bulimia nervosa.
- Uncontrollable urges to eat
- An obsession with food
- Distorted perception of body
- Mood swings
- Anxiety and depression
- Low self-esteem, shame and guilt
Behavioural signs and symptoms of bulimia nervosa.
- Binging and vomiting
- Going to the toilet after meals
- Excessive use of laxatives
- Periods of fasting
- Excessive exercise
- Eating in secret
Long-term signs and symptoms of bulimia nervosa.
- Heart attack
- Rupture in stomach
- Erosion of teeth
What are adipocytes?
Are individual fat cells which store excess dietary fat and energy in the form of triglycerides.
In terms of the distribution of body fat, describe and android body shape.
In terms of the distribution of body fat, describe and gynoid body shape.
Calculate the BMI of a 90kg, 5ft 10in male.
In what health risk category would a female with a BMI of 25-29.9kg/m2 be placed?
Overweight – special attention
Why is a higher waist-to-hip ratio is considered a health risk?
Fat stored in the abdominal region is considered to be a greater risk factor for diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Waist-to-hip ratio risk categories.
CLASSIFICATION MALE FEMALE
High risk >1.0 >0.85
Moderate risk 0.90 – 1.0 0.80 – 0.85
Low risk <0.90 <0.80
In what category of risk would a female with a waist-to hip ratio of 0.88 be placed?
Waist circumference risk categories.
LOWERED RISK HIGH RISK
Men <94cm (<37in) Men >102cm (>40in)
Women <80cm (<32in) Women >88cm (>35in)
Methods of measuring body composition.
- Body mass index (BMI).
- Abdominal circumference.
- Hip to waist ratio.
What is the BMI equation?
Health risk based on BMI
Normal - acceptable 18.5 – 24.9
Overweight – special attention 25 – 29.9
Obesity – medical referral (I) 30 – 34.9
Server obesity (II) 35 – 39.9
Morbid obesity (III) >40