Flashcards in Sexual Differentiation and Disorders Deck (70)
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1

What is the definition of sexual determination?

β†’ Genetically controlled process dependent on the switch on the Y chromosome

2

What is sexual differentiation?

β†’ The process by which internal and external genitalia develop as male or female

3

What does gender depend on?

β†’ A switch gene in the Y chromosome

4

What is genotypic sex?

β†’ XY
β†’ XX

5

What is gonadal sex?

β†’ Testes
β†’ Ovaries

6

What is phenotypic sex?

β†’ outward appearance

7

What is Legal sex?

β†’ Passport/birth certificate

8

What is gender identity?

β†’ How you feel / not always the same as phenotypic

9

What is the first event that occurs that determines sex?

β†’ Genetic signal which then form testes or ovaries

10

What gene creates the testes?

β†’ The SRY gene

11

In the absence of the Y chromosome what develops?

β†’ Ovaries

12

What does SRY mean?

β†’ Sex determining region

13

When does the SRY region switch on and what happens when it is switched on?

β†’ During embryo development in > week 7
β†’ makes gonad into testis

14

What two types of cells are in the testis?

β†’ Sertoli cells
β†’ Leydig cells

15

What do Sertoli cells make?

β†’ Produce anti mullerian hormone

16

What do Leydig cells make?

β†’ Testosterone

17

What is SRY?

β†’ A transcription factor that causes self transcription

18

What happens after fertilization (gonads)?

β†’ A pair of gonads develop which are bipotential

19

What is the precursor of gonads derived from?

β†’ Somatic common mesenchymal tissue precursors called genital ridge primordia

20

What do the genital ridges become?

β†’ Ovaries or testes

21

What does the Mullerian duct become?

β†’ Uterus
β†’ Uterine tubes
β†’ Upper third of vagina

22

What does the Wolffian duct become?

β†’ Vas deferens
β†’ Prostate

23

What are the 3 types of cells that invade the genital ridge?

β†’ Primordial germ cells
β†’ Primitive sex cords
β†’ Mesonephric cells

24

What do primordial germ cells become?

β†’ Sperm or oocytes

25

What do primitive sex cords become?

β†’ Sertoli cells
β†’ or Granulosa cells

26

What do mesonephric cells become?

β†’ Leydig cells
β†’ Theca cells

27

Describe primordial germ cell migration

β†’ Small clusters of PGC cells in the epithelium of the yolk sac expand at 3 weeks
β†’ Migrate to the connective tissue of the hindgut to the region of the developing kidney and onto the genital ridge

28

Describe what happens to primitive sex cords in the male

β†’SRY expression
β†’Penetrate the medullary mesenchyme and surround the primordial germ cells to form testis cords
β†’Eventually become sertoli cells which express anti Mullerian hormone

29

Describe what happens to primitive sex cords in the female

β†’No SRY expression
β†’Sex cords are ill defined and do not penetrate deeply but instead condense in the cortex as small clusters around PGCs
β†’become granulosa cells

30

What type of structures do the sex cords form?

β†’ Tubular structures with germ cells inside of them