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Religion and ethics OCR A level > Sexual ethics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sexual ethics Deck (9)
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1

Sexual ethics - Premarital and extramarital sex

>In ethics, premarital and extramarital sex raise questions around cohabitation (living in sin) and consensual sexual intercourse between people who are married to one another (the sin of fornication).
>They relate to questions of divorce, adultery, and remarriage, in that the Catholic Church believes marriage is indissoluble, so sex with someone other than your spouse after a divorce is considered to be adultery and fornication.

2

Sexual ethics - Premarital sex

>Sex before marriage.
>It can happen on a casual basis, as part of a short relationship or as part of a longer relationship.
>Sex before marriage and cohabitation has grown steadily. In the 1960s, fewer than 1 in 20 UK couples cohabited, but that has increased to more than half of all couples today.
>The introduction of the contraceptive pill in the 1960s has been credited with driving this social change
>Historically Anglo Saxon England saw people betrothed and then married (meaning they lived with each other and had sex while betrothed).
>Betrothal would ordinarily lead to marriage. In eighteenth-century England, half of brides were pregnant at their marriage ceremony, with sexual relations beginning after the betrothal but before the marriage.

3

Sexual ethics - Extramarital sex

>Sexualrelationships where one or both of the sexual partners os married to someone else
>Christian teaching is firmly against this - forbidden in the 10 commandments
>Catholics - sex is exclusively for married couples - marriage is indissoluble, so sex with someone other than your spouse after a divorce is considered to be adultery and fornication.

4

Sexual ethics - Premarital and extramarital sex: NML

>Absolutist view
>Catholic teaching relies heavily on NML
>Reproduction is a primary precept - should be the main aim of sexual activity
>Premarital and extramarital sex are wrong because they are not consistent with the flourishing of human society in bringing up children in stable families
>Contraception is prohibited by Catholicism
>Gives clear rules around premarital and extramarital sex
>Emphasises importance of sanctity of marriage and reproduction (beneficial for stability of society)

5

Sexual ethics - Premarital and extramarital sex: Situation ethics

>Followers don't think there should be rules guiding premarital or extramarital sex
>Each situation should be considered in the context of its own circumstances, and the most loving course of action should be determined and followed
>Relativist view of morality
>Fletcher used sexual ethics to illustrate his view that there should not be absolute rules

6

Sexual ethics - Premarital and extramarital sex: Kantian ethics

>Absolutist view of ethics
>People should not treat others as a means to an ends (no exploitative or non-consensual sexual relations)
>In the kingdom of ends, the commitment of marriage would be respected
>Universability would prevent so much sexual freedom that society was undermined
>Importance of promise-keeping and truth-telling which suggests secret extramarital sex would be unethical

7

Sexual ethics - Premarital and extramarital sex: Utilitarianism

>PEople should be free to act how they want as long as it doesn't harm others. This could be used to defend premarital and extramarital sex
>Although it could be argued that this does harm
>Mill argued that marriage can sometimes reduce women to the status of slaves. He was not against marriage but in favour of gender equality
>Mill tried to make contraception avaliable to the poor at a time when Christian Church opposed contraception

8

Sexual ethics - Homosexuality

>Sexual attraction between those of the same sex
>Traditionally considered a sin
>Still many instances of anti-homosexual attacks and discrimination but also much more public acceptance
>'You shall not lie with a male as with a woman; it is an abomination'
>There is debate about what these texts mean and if they should be considered to be applicable and enforceable in the present day
>Different denominations have varying views about homosexuality

9

Sexual ethics - Homosexuality: NML

>Homosexual acts are wrong because they can't bring forth new life
>Catholic church has traditionally seen homosexuality as a sin but some more modern catholics take a more liberal approach to homosexuality
>In 2016, Pope Francis stated that there are no grounds for considering same-sex partnership to be similar to God's plan for marriage and family life
>Criticised because there are many heterosexual instances in which new life cannot be bought forth, older couples, people with fertlity issues etc