Sexual Violation By Unlawful Sexual Connection Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Sexual Violation By Unlawful Sexual Connection Deck (19):


128(1)(b), Crimes Act 1961



20 years



1) A Person
2) Has Unlawful Sexual Connection
3) Another Person



Gender Neutral. Proven by Judicial notice or circumstantial evidence.


Unlawful Sexual Connection

Sec 128(3) Crimes Act 1961

Unlawful Sexual Connection:

Person A has unlawful sexual connection with person B if Person A has sexual connection with person B-

(a) without Person B's consent to the connection, and

(b) without believing on reasonable grounds that person B consents to the connection.


Sexual Connection

Sec 2, Crimes Act 1961

Sexual Connection:

(a) connection effected by the introduction into the genitalia or anus of one person, otherwise than for genuine medical purposes, of-

(i) a part of the body of another person; or
(ii) an object held or manipulated by another person; or

(b) connection between the mouth or tongue of one person and a part of another person's genitalia or anus; or

(c) the continuation of connection of a kind described in paragraph (a) or paragraph (b).

Sec 2 Crimes Act, 1961



Introduction and penetration have the same meaning.

Introduction to the slightest degree is enough to effect a connection.

Section 2(1A) Crimes Act 1961.


Proof of penetration is required

Proof may be provided by:

- Complainants evidence
- Medical examinations (DNA, injuries)
- Accused's admissions


Genitalia - Sec 2, Crimes Act 1961.

Genitalia includes a surgically constructed or reconstructed organ, analogous to a naturally occurring male or female genitalia (whether the person concerned is male, female or of indeterminate sex).

Section 2, Crimes Act 1961.


R v Koroheke

The genitalia comprise the reproduction organs, interior and exterior.... they include the vulva and the labia, both interior and exterior at the opening of the vagina.

R v Koroheke



Consent is a person's conscious and voluntary agreement to something desired or proposed by another.


R v Cox

Consent must be full, voluntary, free and informed... freely and voluntarily given by a person in a position to form a rational judgement.

R v Cox


Matters that do not constitute consent

Sec 128A, Crimes Act 1961

- not protesting or offering physical resistance to use of force
- application of force to self or others, threats of force to self or others, or fear of force to self or others
- asleep or unconscious
- so affected by drugs/alcohol they cannot consent
- so affected by mental impairment they cannot consent
- mistaken ID
- mistaken as to the nature and quality of the act

Sec 128A, Crimes Act 1961


Reasonable Grounds

The establishing of Reasonable Grounds is a three step process.


Subjective Test - Step 1

Absence of Consent

What was the complainant thinking at the time? Was she consenting?


Subjective Test - Step 2

Belief in Consent

If she wasn't consenting, did the offender believe she was consenting. i.e. what was the offender thinking at the time.


Objective Test - Step 3

Reasonable grounds for belief in consent

If the offender believed the complainant was consenting, was that belief reasonable in the circumstances. i.e. what would a reasonable person have believed if placed in the same position.


R v Gutuama

Under the objective test, the crown must prove that "no reasonable person in the accused's shoes could have thought that the complainant was consenting.


Another Person

refer above